15 Branches of Law

It is known as the Right to the legal system that regulates the different relationships established in a certain nation or between countries. Within the law we can find several branches and classifications. Next we will know in detail each one of them.

Public LawPrivate right
DefinitionSet of rules that regulate the organization of the State and its relations with citizens.Set of legal norms that regulate legal relations between individuals and between them and the State, when it acts as a private subject.
RelationsOf subordinationCoordination
InterestsCollective interests are pursued.Individual interests are pursued.
ContentIt contains rules for the organization of society.It contains rules of conduct for individuals.
RemainingPolitical, Constitutional, Administrative, Immigration, Procedural, International Public, Fiscal or tributary, Penal.Civil, Commercial or commercial, Private International.

What is the right?

The word right comes from the Latin directus, which means the concepts of “straight” or “located in a straight line” in relation to the general terms of justice. In classical Latin the term ius was used to refer to objective law. This term ius or also called jus was the emphasis to create words like just or justice.

In general terms, the concept of Law is used to refer to the set of norms and principles in force in a country that constitute the normative and institutional order to regulate human behavior within society. The basis of the law focuses on social relationships, which are those that determine its content and character.

Said norms must be promulgated by the state and guarantee the social pact that allows organized coexistence, that is, to maintain a social order.

The right has the following characteristics:

  • Normative: It implies that it must be contained within the framework of what is considered fair, the different types of relationships that exist between the individuals of a community or between them and the State.
  • Bilateral: This characteristic implies that the law requires the interaction of two or more individuals who submit to the law in the same condition and above the impulses of their will.
  • Coercible: It implies the right to the force of coercion necessary to enforce a conduct that was publicly pre-established.
  • Heteronomy : implies that legal laws must be born from an institution other than their recipient.
  • Legal system: with this characteristic it is described that the laws have been created to have a level of rank and priority that establishes the scope of each one.

Branches of law

Within the law we can find different branches or categories that specialize in the different criteria of application of the law.

The first major classification involves subdividing law into its three main branches: public law, private law, and social law.

Public Law

This branch is the one that is dedicated to controlling the way in which the different citizens relate to the state . This relationship can be on a personal basis or through public or private organizations, provided that they act within the framework of what is established by the Constitution.

Within public law we can find the following branches :

  • Political law: it is the branch of law that studies and regulates the exercise of politics, this implies the elements and classes of States, the different forms of government, political philosophy and other aspects that are related to it.
  • Constitutional law: it is the branch that is responsible for the study of the fundamental rights that are detailed in the Magna Carta or in the legal text that is the basis of society. This right focuses on the regulation of public powers.
  • Administrative law: This branch focuses its study on public administration, this means the regulation of the State, the different public services and those auxiliary bodies, which must operate in order to guarantee order, security and justice.
  • Migration law : this type of law is known as the set of public law regulations that are dedicated to organizing the international transit of people, establishing the different modalities and conditions that must be met in order to enter, stay or leave the country for both foreigners. as for citizens of the state.
  • Procedural law: it is the division of law that aims to study and supervise the different individuals involved in judicial proceedings and organize the courts that are in charge of imparting justice. This branch is dedicated to the resolution of conflicts between individuals or between individuals and the State.
  • Public international law : it is the branch in charge of studying and establishing the rules to regulate the action of States and international organizations with the aim of improving cooperation and negotiations as guarantees for world peace. This division grants legal order to the international community.
  • Fiscal or tax law: this discipline of law is in charge of studying the different mechanisms of collection and taxes of the State, that is, the mechanisms that the State has to obtain income and finance public spending and the different public investments that are made with the objective of the common good.
  • Criminal Law: it is that branch of law that establishes and regulates the punishments for different crimes or offenses through the imposition of certain penalties.

Private right

The private law is in charge of regulating legal relations between subjects of law , ie individuals constituted in equal conditions and without any including interests of the State or public law.

Let’s see what its branches are:

  • Civil law: it is a set of laws and regulations that are responsible for regulating everything related to people, whether the link between them or with their private assets. In general, each country has a civil code where these laws are reflected.
  • Commercial law : it is the branch of private law whose objective is the study and regulation of commercial, financial or economic exploitation acts that are carried out in legal and formal terms between the different subjects established in the law.
  • Private international law: this discipline regulates the international operations of individuals and regulates nationalities and possible conflicts between different legal frameworks.

Social law

The social law covers the rules and laws that ensure a good coexistence  among individuals in a society.

Within its branches we find:

  • Labor law: It is that discipline of law in charge of regulating the conditions of the labor relationship in order to guarantee that they are fair and respectful of the law.
  • Economic law : they are the set of rules that are responsible for regulating the participation of the State in the economic activity of a society, in order to provide legal security between the different individuals who participate in the production chain in all its stages.
  • Ecological law : this branch involves the set of norms that are in charge of defending the environment and the ecology of society, to try to ensure that natural resources are not used irresponsibly or that excessive pollution and ecological damage are generated.
  • Agrarian law: this branch is responsible for regulating land tenure, agricultural exploitation and the different forms of non-urban property.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *