Expository, narrative and argumentative text

Texts are a complex interweaving of elements, they have motivations, functions and are directed to different audiences. Thus, this ancient technology can be developed in a variety of ways, such as expository, narrative, and argumentative texts. 

DefinitionExposes, explains and illuminates a certain topic in a text.It is a text based on the succession of events, in a certain time and place.Text with a strong subjective charge, which tries to convince a receiver about a certain topic by means of well-founded arguments or points of view.
ExamplesScientific investigationsNovels and short storiesOpinion note and advertisements

A text , strictly speaking, is a set of statements that make up a written document. However, there are various texts as it refers to an extremely complex structure. It is not the same to describe a character than to write a journalistic note, narrate a historical event or simply tell about the rotation of the planets.

Although it is also important to remember that here we are talking about ideal types, because in reality a mixture often occurs.

Expositive text

An expository text is one that clarifies, exposes, illuminates or presents a meaning or sense from a word to a general text , from a chemical process to an event as complex as a war. Its effect is to report something objectively, doing everything possible to obliterate the point of view of the speaker.

The expository texts can be of an informative nature, that is, of a general interest for the public that does not have information about what is discussed. In the latter case, its purpose is rather didactic, teaching the recipient. Likewise, there are technical and specific expository texts, which assume a prior wisdom of the reader, which allows somewhat more intricate or complex knowledge (a different reading contract).

Good examples of expository texts are scientific research, specialized articles, monographs, theses, lectures or essays.

Narrative text

This type of text is based on the development of facts, real or fictitious, in a certain time and space . Naturally, descriptions and even arguments enter into the narrative of a text; however, its crucial point or skeleton is a succession, a temporality that advances by means of facts and not an arrest, very typical of a descriptive fragment. To narrate, at some point, is to declare an action, a future or flow in stories of all kinds.

And how is the development of the narrative? In the first place there is usually a kind of approach, a story is placed, the characters (historical or fictional); then a knot where stories evolve, become characters and even conflicts occur; finally, there is an outcome where the plot is resolved or simply appeals to an ending, because it is not necessarily a fictionalized story.

It is important to remember that the essential feature in any narrative text, be it a story, a novel or the account of a historical event (to give only examples), is that a succession is perceived at the same time in history.

Argumentative text

The argumentative text is one in which an idea, project or thought in general is defended or rejected . It has its share of conflict or belligerence, because here there is no search for objectivity in the broad sense, but rather a sender who wields a good number of arguments to convince the addressee or receiver on a particular issue. It is intended that the reader thinks that their point of view is more valid than that of the other and thus modify an opinion.

Here there is a lot of subjectivity, for this reason examples of argumentative texts are newspaper editorials, opinion pieces or publicity texts. The intention is to persuade, advise or simply convince.

A fairly normal structure of the argumentative text is usually the one that introduces the topic, wields a hypothesis and reinforces it with arguments. There may be a conclusion by way of recapitulation of what is mentioned in the body of the text.

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