Literary figures

The figures literary, or also called rhetorical figures are unconventional ways to use words to agregarles expressiveness, beauty, vivacity, in order to achieve surprise, excite, persuade and suggest. There are different types of literary figures, then we will know what they are.

Literary figure
DefinitionUnconventional ways of using words to give them beauty, expressiveness and greater liveliness, with the goal of being able to move, suggest or persuade the reader.
TypesFigures of diction: affect the shape of words, which implies that, in general, it also affects their meaning:
-Figures of transformation
-Figures of repetition
-Figures of omission
-Figures of position Figures of thought: mainly related to the meaning of the words:
-Figures of amplification
-Figures of accumulation
figures -Figures of definition
figures -Dialectical figures -Fictional figures

What are literary figures?

Called literary figures or rhetorical unconventional ways those using words to give them beauty, expressiveness and greater vividness, with the goal of thrilling power, suggest or persuade the reader. These figures are typical of literary discourse and its different genres such as narrative, poetry, drama, essay, among others, where language is an end in itself and is modified in order to enhance its expressive possibilities.

The literary figures are not one unique to the literature but are also used in colloquial language, in fact several are already assimilated this with certain turns or expressions. Something very important is that these figures should not be confused with tropes or with figurative, imaginative or comparative uses of language, as occurs in metaphors. These rhetorical figures use the ordinary acceptances of words, but order them in a special way so that their meanings are enhanced and beauty can be enhanced, they are very common and evident within literary language, that is, in the writings of the works. of language art.

Types of literary figures

Literary figures can be divided into two main types: figures of speech and figures of thought.

Diction figures

They are those figures that affect the shape of words, which implies that, in general, it also affects their meaning. In turn, within this type we can find other sub-classifications:

– Figures of transformation: They are better known as metaplasms and consist of using words in a way that would normally be incorrect, without changing their meaning. The most popular transformation figures are:

  • Prosthesis: involves adding a phoneme at the beginning of the word.
  • Epenthesis : A phoneme is added inside the word.
  • Apocope: One or more sounds are lost at the end of the word.

– Figures of Repetition: These arise when a sound that was already enunciated within the text is recovered, such as phonemes, syllables, among others. The best known repetition figures are:

  • Anaphora : It is the repetition of one or more words from the beginning of a verse or statement.
  • Polysyndeton: It implies the use of more conjunctions than those considered normal in a sentence.

-Figures of omission: These are those in which elements of the sentence or phrase are eliminated, thus making it lighter. The most common skip shapes are:

  • Asyndeton: The links or conjunctions of an enumeration are omitted.
  • Ellipsis : Parts of speech that are understood by context are eliminated here.
  • Paralipsis: Part of the text is omitted, but the reader is called to what is omitted.

-Position figures : These figures imply that an alteration of the normal order of the elements of a sentence is generated. The most common position figures are:

  • Hyperbaton: This alters the syntax of a sentence to modify its metric and attract attention to something.
  • Anastrophe: Here the common syntactic place of two elements of a sentence is exchanged.

Thinking figures

Thought figures are those that are primarily related to the meaning of words. They can be:

-Amplification figures: These figures lengthen the contents of a text. The best known are:

  • Expolitio : It consists of saying an idea and then developing it extensively.
  • Paraphrase: It implies saying the same idea but with other words of your own.

– Figures of accumulation: They are those that pursue the addition of elements that complement what has already been said. Examples:

  • Enumeration: It consists of giving many examples about an idea already expressed.
  • Epiphrasis: Several descriptors are added to a main idea that complement it.

-Logical figures: These are the figures that are related to the meaning or logic that has been applied to the ideas presented, thus causing contrasts, oppositions, etc. Some logical figures are:

  • Oxymoron: Two contradictory adjectives are used.
  • Antithesis: Here two irreconcilable terms oppose each other in order to lay the foundations of a certain idea.

– Figures of definition: These figures are known as descriptive figures since they reflect in the language the properties of what is referred to. Some of the best known are:

  • Etopeia: It is about describing a character from his moral traits.
  • Chronography: It is the description of times or temporal events.

– Oblique figures: They are those that approach reality in an indirect way. They may be:

  • Periphrasis: Many more words are used than necessary to make a description.
  • Litotes: It implies affirming a tear, attenuating the negating su contrario.

– Dialogue figures: They are used to appeal to the emotionality of the recipient, such as:

  • Exclamation or ecphonesis: Words are used that lead the receiver to an admiring emotion.
  • Rhetorical question: These are questions that do not seek an answer, but rather express an idea.

– Dialectical figures: They are those figures of an argumentative nature that seek to convince the recipient of something. They may be:

  • Dubitatio or aporesis: Doubts are raised regarding the possibilities other than what is stated.
  • Correct: It implies adding a correction in relation to what has been said above, generating a relationship of antonymy.

– Fictional figures: Here imaginary events are presented as real. For instance:

  • Personification: Human traits are given to inanimate objects or animals.
  • Idolopoeia: Something is attributed to a person who has already passed away.

Examples of literary figures

-In-cre-í-ble. (Thesis)

-I saw this movie hundreds of times. (Hyperbole)

-I ask God (instead of saying: “I ask God”) (Anastrophe).

-When we got back from the party, he was so tired that he fell asleep like a baby (Comparison)

-There are three musicians I blindly admire: John Lennon, Jimi Hendrix and Freddie Mercury. (Cataphor)

-I would have loved to go to the King of Pop recital. (“King of Pop” instead of saying Michael Jacksona) (Periphrasis)

-He was faithful, good, noble, kind, gentleman, but fundamentally an excellent father. (Enumeration)

-Julio Cortázar was a lover of boxing and jazz, as well as being an unclassifiable storyteller. (Etopeia)

I said goodbye to her while stroking her velvety cheeks. (Metaphor)

-He woke up with the rooster kikiriki. (Onomatopoeia)

-When I found it, it looked like I had seen a ghost. (Allusion)

-Your face, tender and sincere; your hands, soft and warm. (Parallelism)

-Faster, that time is money. (Describes that both time and gold are very valuable) (Analogy)

-The wind whistled all night without stopping. (Personification or Prosopopeia)

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