Harassment and bullying

The harassment is an aggressive or violent behavior, in which the aggressor constantly attacked the victim with the intent to intimidate, control or cause damage.

The bullying refers to a form of harassment that happens within the school context, usually between classmates.

DefinitionIt is an aggressive or violent behavior, against an individual or group, which is constantly repeated.It is a type of bullying that generally occurs between peers in the school environment.
Where is it presented?At work, home, school, virtually (cyberbullying and cyberbullying ) and on the street.In the school context, places of recreation or meeting of young people and virtually ( cyberbullying ).
Main features
  • It repeats itself in time.
  • It is the consequence of an imbalance of power.
  • It can occur between peers, an authority figure and a subordinate or between a subordinate and an authority figure.
  • Actors involved can be of any age.
  • It is a repeated situation over time.
  • It originates from an imbalance of power.
  • It occurs between pairs or equals (classmates).
  • It is common for it to involve third parties (witnesses or instigators).
  • Most of the actors involved are minors.
  • Physical harassment
  • Verbal harassment
  • Psychological harassment
  • sexual harassment
  • Real Estate Harassment
  • Cyberbullying and cyberbullying
  • Physical bullying
  • Bullying verbal
  • Psychological bullying
  • Bullying social
  • Bullying sexual
  • Ciberbullying
  • When a person is constantly stalking, chasing them on the street, calling them, or through the Internet.
  • When the boss requests sexual favors from a secretary against her will, taking advantage of her hierarchical status.
  • When one student constantly humiliates another to demonstrate dominance to classmates.
  • There is one or more forms of aggression or violence (intimidation, threats, insults, beatings, sexual violence, among others).

What is harassment?

Harassment is a constant behavior in which the harasser acts in an aggressive or intimidating way against the victim.

The word harassment means the action and effect of harassing. It is composed of the Latin prefix a- that indicates proximity, the word cursus that means ‘race’, and refers to the act of constantly chasing someone without giving them rest.

It can occur in the family, work or school context, as well as in various everyday situations of private or public life. It is expressed through the use of physical, verbal, psychological, social and / or sexual aggression or violence.

The relationship between the aggressor and the victim can be:

  • Horizontal (between classmates),
  • Descending (between a major and a minor),
  • Ascendant (between a subordinate and an authority figure).

Harassment takes the form of threats, blackmail and other inappropriate behavior against the victim, generating stress, fear, anxiety and depression in the latter.

Characteristics of harassment

  • Intentionality: the aggressor actively seeks to cause damage to the victim’s self-esteem, reputation, physical, work, or home security.
  • Repetition: bullying is an act that is constantly repeated, creating stress and anxiety in the victim, feeling that it will continue in the future.
  • Imbalance of power: the aggressor possesses or considers that he possesses the power to dominate the victim, while the victim feels defenseless against harassment.
  • There is no specific hierarchy: aggressor and victim can maintain a horizontal relationship (for example, being colleagues at work or study) or vertical (for example, that the aggressor is of legal age and the victim is a minor).

Types of harassment

  • Workplace harassment: usually, the harasser has a position of power over the victim, seeking to intimidate him or exerting coercion in order for him to do something against his will.
  • Cyberbullying: the stalker uses digital means to harass, persecute or threaten the victim, constantly attacking them and using anonymity.
  • Psychological harassment: the harasser insults, intimidates or demoralizes the victim in order to make them feel bad.
  • Physical harassment: the harasser subjects the victim to his presence, persecuting her or using physical violence.
  • Sexual harassment: the harasser makes advances, threatens, blackmails or makes unwanted physical contact with the victim, in order to obtain sexual favors.
  • Real Estate Harassment: the harasser harasses someone into leaving the home they live in and renouncing their tenant rights.

See also

Causes of bullying

  • Interpersonal conflicts.
  • Social problems.
  • Lack of punishment for violent behavior.
  • The physical appearance of the victim.
  • Cultural differences.
  • Desire to hold dominance status.

Consequences of bullying

On a psychological level, bullying can cause depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts, in addition to motivating the normalization of negative behaviors.

On a physical level, it can lead to physiological problems due to physical abuse.

What is bullying ?

The word bullying is an Anglicism composed of the voice bully , from the Dutch boel and meaning ‘lover’ (but with the derogatory sense of “pimp”), and the English ending – ing , which indicates an action. In Spanish, the bully is the ‘bully’ or ‘bully’, and refers to bullying.

This type of harassment is aggressive and constant behavior that occurs in the school environment , usually among minors, in which the aggressor and the victim are classmates. By constantly repeating itself, bullying is not about an isolated act or particular disagreements that may exist between different people.

The bullying can take the form of direct attacks against the victim or indirectly, causing it to be isolated or excluded by others.

The places where it happens include the school and places of recreation or meeting of young people, and may involve the active or passive participation of third parties.

Despite being a type of harassment in which both the aggressor and the victim are peers and are the same age, bullying is framed in an unequal relationship of power. The bully or aggressor possesses, or considers that he possesses, the power to control or harm the victim, while the latter does not have the means to defend himself.

Characteristics of bullying

  • Imbalance of power between the aggressor and the victim.
  • It is intentional, even if there is no apparent reason or provocation on the part of the victim.
  • The victim is unable to defend himself.
  • It is common for witnesses to remain silent or to be instigators.
  • It is a continuous and persistent behavior.
  • The victim is afraid of the possibility of a recurrence.

Causes of bullying

  • In the case of the aggressor , bullying can be caused by family problems, passivity in the face of aggressive behavior, lack of supervision and punishment, an impulsive personality and low empathy, in addition to the influence of third parties, motivating negative behaviors towards others.
  • In the case of the victim , they may suffer bullying because they are withdrawn or passive, have family problems, present a physical disability or consider that they do not have the means to defend themselves or support when a situation of this type occurs.

Consequences of bullying

The aggressor may have educational and social integration problems, manifesting this behavior in other types of future personal relationships.

The victim of bullying can suffer from depression, eating disorders, poor school performance, anxiety, social integration problems and even develop aggressive behaviors.

One of its most serious consequences is the possibility that the victim commits suicide.

Types of bullying

  • Physical bullying : it manifests itself through hitting, shoving and even damage to the victim’s property by one or more aggressors.
  • Psychological bullying : the aggressor manipulates, blackmails, intimidates or threatens the victim, causing a feeling of anxiety or fear.
  • Verbal bullying : the aggressor insults, creates rumors or makes fun of the victim.
  • Social bullying : the victim is excluded, discriminated or isolated, leaving them out of group activities.
  • Sexual bullying : the victim suffers harassment, harassment or sexual abuse by the aggressor.
  • Cyberbullying : the aggressor harasses the victim through social networks and other virtual means.


It is a form of harassment similar to bullying that occurs between peers or equals , through the Internet, beyond the live contact between the aggressor and the victim.

It is a type of harassment in which social networks, instant messages, chats, emails and forums are used as means to attack the victim.

The aggressor enjoys a certain level of anonymity and a distancing from the possible harm that may be caused. It can be presented in the form of threats or insults to the victim, transmitting information with the intention of causing harm, or publishing images or humiliating text.

The cyberbullying and cyberstalking are different forms of harassment. When it comes to cyberbullying , the aggressor and the victim are of similar ages, usually minors, and are part of the same school context. In the case of cyberbullying, the aggressor and the victim can be of different ages and social backgrounds.

See also Types of bullying.

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