Types of migration

Migration is the geographical displacement that a person or group of people makes outside their place of origin in order to settle in a new destination, either temporarily or permanently.

There are different types of migration depending on factors such as permanence in the place of destination, the migrant’s legal situation, their age, their intention to leave their territory, etc. We describe each of these types below:

According to your destiny

Internal or national migration

They are movements that are carried out within the national territory. This type of migration can be driven by economic reasons (looking for better sources of employment in another town or city) or social (fleeing insecurity and finding a quieter destination). For example, migrating from Mexico City to San Miguel de Allende.

External or international migration

When the displacement is outside the country of the migrant. In these cases, a search for a better quality of life is usually imposed in various aspects (better income and quality of life) that is usually diminished in the country of origin, either for political, economic or social reasons. For example, a Mexican leaves his country for Canada.

According to its duration

Temporary migration

When a migrant settles in his place of destination only for a time, and then moves to a different place or returns to his place of origin. Lack of adaptation or finding a destination with better opportunities are usually the main reasons for this type of migration. For example, migrate to Argentina for four years and then go to Spain.

Permanent migration

It is when the migrant permanently establishes himself in a new place. In these cases, the migrant has found the economic, professional or personal stability they were looking for, or has ultimately managed to adapt and can deal with the challenges posed by migration. For example, a Venezuelan who arrives in Mexico and decides to stay and live there.

According to his character

Voluntary migration

It is when the migrant decides to move of their own free will. It is what we do when we want to migrate and we plan to make the trip. Being our own decision, we can manage the exit from the territory according to our needs. For example, we decided to migrate to Europe within a year and we use this time to save, choose the country and city, get the corresponding documents, etc.

Forced migration

It occurs when the migrant must leave their territory due to external situations, even if they do not want to do so. For example, in wars, many people have to leave in a hurry and unplanned, although they want to stay at home they cannot do so because their lives would be in danger. Other examples would be natural disasters, which force people to leave their homes because they are no longer habitable.

According to the legal situation of the migrant

Legal or regular migration

It occurs when the migrant meets all the legal requirements to enter a new country or territory, which allows him not only entry, but also his subsequent academic or work insertion and usually ensures his stay permanently.For example, having a passport current or visa if applicable.

Illegal or irregular migration

In this case, the migrant does not have the necessary documents to be at the destination legally, but still manages to enter and remain in the territory. This makes him a target of the immigration authorities, and also prevents him from having access to basic services, employment or education. An example is the people who manage to enter the United States without documentation because they managed to circumvent the controls at the Mexican border.

According to its origin and destination

Rural-urban migration

It is the displacement from the countryside or rural centers to the city. Usually, the search for higher paying jobs is usually one of the main motivations, but it can also be for academic reasons. For example, migrating from a hamlet in the Venezuelan plains to Caracas, the country’s capital, to study at the university.

Urban-rural migration

The migrant moves from a city to the country. It can be for work reasons, for economic reasons (in the interior of the country prices are usually more accessible than the capital) or social (search for tranquility, greater contact with nature, etc.) For example, someone from Bogotá leaves to live in Guanía, an area that lacks land routes and can only be accessed through waterways or airways.

Urban-urban migration

They are movements from one city to another, either within or outside the territory. Transfers for work or for academic reasons are often linked to this type of migration. For this same reason, on many occasions these are temporary transfers. For example, migrating from Buenos Aires to the city of Córdoba to work for two years on a job project.

Rural-rural migration

They are displacements between undeveloped areas. On many occasions, this type of migration is linked to the existence of temporary sources of work, so that the migrant changes destination when the job ends, such as farm workers who move from one area to another depending on the season. from harvest.

According to the age of the migrant population

Adult migration

They are people of economically productive age. In a family group, they are the ones who usually travel first, since they assume the responsibility of ensuring basic needs (source of income, house) so that the rest of the members can arrive. An example is a mother who leaves her country to seek better living conditions for her children.

Child migration

It is the child population that migrates with their relatives or adult guardians, such as children who go with their parents.

Migration of the elderly

It is the population over 65 years of age. Usually, they are people who migrate to meet again with children or grandchildren who migrated first, or because there is an external situation that forces them to move, such as a natural catastrophe, a political conflict, etc.

Causes of migration

Migration can be driven by political, economic, war, or ecological causes. In many cases, there may be more than one factor involved.

  • Political : coups d’état, instability in the alternation of power, persecution of political dissidents, etc.
  • Economic : hyperinflation, shortage of basic products, exchange controls, high levels of unemployment.
  • War : wars between countries, conflicts between internal guerrillas, civil wars, etc.
  • Ecological : desertification, extreme temperatures, disappearance of water or food sources, among others.

See also Causes and consequences of migration

Consequences of migration

The consequences of migration affect both the place of origin and the place of destination. Mass migrations, above all, generate new economic, political, social and cultural dynamics for both parties.

  • Economic : increase in the workforce in the host country and decrease in the workforce in the country of origin.
  • Policies : changes in immigration policies, either to make entry and permanence requirements more flexible or tougher.
  • Social : population redistribution, greater demand for public services in the host country.
  • Cultural : cultural exchange expressed in language, music, gastronomy. New processes of miscegenation.

See also:

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