60 examples of acids and bases

In chemistry acids and bases are called two different types of substances opposed to each other , each of these substances has specific properties that modify the behavior of chemical solutions. Both acids and bases can be in liquid, gaseous and solid states.

When acids and bases come together in a solution, an exothermic reaction occurs, that is, heat is produced, this reaction is known as neutralization.

Classification of Acids and BasesCharacteristicsExample
Strong acidIt is an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solutionHCI (ac) H2SO4(ac)
Strong BaseIt is a base that completely ionizes in aqueous solutionNaOH (ac) KOH (ac)
Weak AcidIt is an acid that is partially ionized in aqueous solution, so the concentration of its ions in solution is lower than that of a strong acidCarbonic Acid (H2 CO3)
Weak BaseIt is a base that is partially ionized in aqueous solution, so the concentration of its ions in solution is lower than that of a strong base.Ammonia (NH3)


What is an Acid?

Acid are those substances that release positive hydrogen ions (H +) in a solution. Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to turn red. Some acids made by the body, such as gastric acid, can help organs function properly.

Acid properties

  • They have a bitter taste like the acid of citrus.
  • They are corrosive.
  • Change the color of the paper from blue to pink and from orange to red.
  • They cause burns to the skin.
  • They are good conductors of electricity in aqueous solutions.
  • They react with active metals to form salt and hydrogen.
  • They react with bases forming salt plus water.
  • They react with metal oxides to form salt plus water.

Examples of Acids

  1. Perchloric Acid: it is a strong liquid acid at room temperature, highly oxidizing.
  2. Nitric Acid: it is a strong and intensely oxidizing acid, used to make certain explosives and also fertilizers.
  3. Ascorbic Acid: it  is vitamin C, so necessary for health, it is a protective substance due to its antioxidant effects.
  4. Hydrochloric Acid: It is the only strong acid synthesized by the human body, a process that occurs in the stomach to carry out the degradation of food in the digestive process.
  5. Tartaric Acid: it is a white crystalline powder, it is used in the preparation of effervescent drinks, in the bakery, wine and pharmaceutical industries. The cream of tartar that some recipes carry is tartaric acid.
  6. Hydrofluoric Acid: due to its ability to attack glass, it is used in the carving and engraving of crystals.
  7. Sulfuric Acid: it is a strong acid par excellence, it has an infinite number of applications in various industries and in the synthesis process.
  8. Trifluoroacetic Acid: It is a good solvent for many organic compounds.
  9. Phosphoric Acid: it is present in various colas beverages. It is considered harmful to health, since it promotes decalcification.
  10. Acetic acid: it is the main component of vinegar, the acidity that it creates transforms it into a widely used food preservative.
  11. Fluorontimonic Acid: it is the strongest superacid known, it exceeds the acidity of sulfuric acid.
  12. Chromic Acid: it is a dark red powder, it participates in the chrome plating process, it is also used to glaze ceramics.
  13. Indolacetic Acid: it is the main representative of auxins, important in plant growth hormones.
  14. Deoxyribonucleic acid: it is the one that holds the key to life since it makes up the genes that govern the synthesis of countless proteins.
  15. Tricarboxylic Acids: comprises a group of carboxylic acids that have three carboxyl groups
  16. Formic Acid: it is the simplest of organic acids, prolonged exposure to this acid can cause respiratory failure and death.
  17. Gluconic Acid: the salts of this acid are widely used in glassware cleaning processes.
  18. Lactic Acid: is an important part of biochemical processes.
  19. Benzoic Acid: it is an acid with a characteristic odor that is widely used to preserve foods that require an acid PH.
  20. Malic Acid: it is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of laxatives.
  21. Caarbonic acid: in some places it is part of the cave formation process. It is present in carbonated drinks.
  22. Acetic Acid: it is the weak acid that we use in the salad
  23. Acetylsalicylic Acid: it is the active principle of aspirin, a medicine that is used as an analgesic.
  24. Ascorbic Acid: is the common name for vitamin C, which is found in fruits and vitamin supplements and is involved in healing.
  25. Boric Acid: it is a weak acid that is used as an insecticide and flame retardant.
  26. Butyric Acid: it is the fatty acid present in butter.
  27. Carbonic Acid: it is the acid found in soft drinks.
  28. Folic Acid: it is an acid that is obtained in the leaves of vegetables.
  29. Hyaluronic Acid: used in skin creams.
  30. Oleic Acid: Fatty acid found in olive oil.
  31. Oxalic Acid: acid found in spinach leaves.
  32. Uric Acid: its excess in the blood is known as hyperuricemia.
  33. Arachidonic Acid: fatty acid found in cell membranes.
  34. Retinoic Acid: it is an acid product of the metabolism of vitaamine.
  35. Linoleic Acid: acid found in walnuts.

Examples of Bases

  1. Sodium Hydroxide: it  is a strong base that is used in the paper industry.
  2. Magnesium Hydroxide: is a strong base that is sometimes used as an acid or laxative.
  3.  Calcium Hydrogen: used to make pesticides.
  4. Potassium Hydrogen: it is a strong and corrosive base that is widely used in different industries, widely used to make soap.
  5. Barium Hydrogen: used to make veins.
  6. Iron Hydrogen II or III: it is usually generated with the metallurgical industry, it is used to make paint.
  7. Ammonia: it is a gas with a characteristic smell, it is used to make fertilizers.
  8. Soap: it is a sodium or potassium salt, it is used for personal hygiene.
  9. Detergent: it is also a product for hygiene.
  10. Quinine: it is a natural base produced by some plants, it has analgesic properties.
  11. Aniline: it is used in the rubber industry, in the manufacture of explosives among other things.
  12. Guanine: it is one of the nitrogenous bases that is part of nucleic acids.
  13. Pyrimidine: the nitrogenous bases that make up nucleic acids are derived from pyrimidine.
  14. Cytosine: it is one of the nitrogenous bases that are part of nucleic acids.
  15. Adenine: it is also one of the bases that are part of nucleic acids.
  16. Zinc hydroxide: it is a substance that can act as an acid and as a base at the same time.
  17. Copper hydroxide: used to color ceramic objects.
  18. Zirconium Hydroxide: used in glass
  19. Beryllium hydroxide: it is a substance of limited abundance.
  20. Aluminum Hydroxide: used in medicine as amtacid.
  21. Omeprasol: inhibits up to 80% the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
  22. Lansoprazole: used to treat injuries
  23. Esomeprazole: used to decrease acid production.
  24. Pantoprazole: proton pump inhibitor.
  25. Rabeprazole: used in short-term treatments.

The characteristics of the bases can be mentioned that according to the temperature they can be found in liquid, solid or gaseous substances , they can be classified into strong and weak bases, it has a bitter taste, they vary according to their degree of PH, in aqueous solutions they can be conductive of electricity and are corrosive to various metals.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *