Chemical and physical properties of matter

All matter has physical and chemical properties . The former are characteristics that scientists can measure without changing the composition of the sample under study, such as mass, color, and volume (the amount of space occupied by a sample). The second describe the characteristic capacity of a substance to react to form new substances; include its flammability and susceptibility to corrosion. All samples of a pure substance have the same chemical and physical properties. For example, pure copper is always a reddish-brown solid (a physical property) and always dissolves in dilute nitric acid to produce a blue solution and brown gas (a chemical property).

Chemical properties
Physical properties
DefinitionChemical properties are properties that can be observed or measured when a substance undergoes a chemical change.Physical properties are properties that can be observed without causing a chemical change.
Chemical reactionIt is necessary to perform a chemical reaction to show the property.No chemical reaction is needed here.
Links (edit)Chemical properties are connected to chemical bonds in a substance.Physical properties have no such relationship.
FunctionIt can be used to predict how substances react.It is used primarily to identify or describe the substance.
PropertiesChemical properties of a substance can include buoyancy, viscosityThey can include compressibility, radioactivity, toxicity, flammability, heat of combustion, reactivity between chemicals, etc.

Chemical and physical properties of matter

Physical properties of matter

A physical property is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance . Silver is a shiny metal that conducts electricity very well. It can be molded into thin sheets, a property called malleability. Salt is opaque and brittle and conducts electricity when dissolved in water, which it does quite easily. The physical properties of matter include color, hardness, malleability, solubility, electrical conductivity, density, melting points, and boiling points .

For items, the color does not vary much from item to item. The vast majority of the elements are colorless, silver or gray . Some elements have distinctive colors: sulfur and chlorine are yellow , copper is (of course) copper in color, and elemental bromine is red.. However, density can be a very useful parameter to identify an element. Of the materials that exist as solids at room temperature, iodine has a very low density compared to zinc, chromium, and tin. Gold has a very high density, just like platinum. Pure water, for example, has a density of 0.998 g / cm3 at 25 ° C. Note that corn oil has a lower mass / volume ratio than water. This means that when added to water, the corn oil will “float.”

The hardness helps determine how an element can be used (especially metal). Many elements are quite soft (silver and gold, for example), while others (like titanium, tungsten, and chromium) are much harder. Carbon is an interesting example of hardness. In graphite (the “lead” found in pencils) carbon is very soft, while carbon in a diamond is about seven times as hard.

Points melting and boiling are identifiers unique something, especially compounds. In addition to giving an idea of ​​the identity of the compound, important information about the purity of the material can be obtained.

Chemical properties of matter

The chemical properties of matter describe its “potential” to undergo some chemical change or reaction by virtue of its composition . What elements, electrons, and bonds are present to give the potential for chemical change. It is quite difficult to define a chemical property without using the word “change.” Eventually, you should be able to look at the formula of a compound and establish some chemical property. At this time this is very difficult to do and you are not expected to be able to do it. For example, hydrogen has the potential to ignite and explode under the right conditions – this is a chemical property. Metals in general have the chemical property of reacting with an acid. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas; this is a chemical property.

A chemical property of iron is that it is able to combine with oxygen to form iron oxide. The most general term for oxidation and other similar processes is corrosion . Other terms commonly used in descriptions of chemical changes are burning, rotting, exploding, decomposing, and fermenting. Chemical properties are very useful for identifying substances. However, unlike physical properties, chemical properties can only be observed when the substance is in the process of being changed to a different substance.

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