Values ​​and antivalues

The values are qualities or attributes considered positive , necessary and desirable humans assigned to objects and other humans. They are characterized by being associated with the idea of ​​”good” or by being useful for individual and social life.

Anti- values , on the other hand, are also attributes that are assigned to objects and people , with the exception that these represent something negative, unnecessary or undesirable , that is, they are associated with the idea of ​​“bad”. In this way, the antivalues ​​are the counterpart of the values. When an antivalue manifests itself in a subject or object, it implies an evil for something or someone.

DefinitionThey are attributes seen as positive and desirable that are assigned to objects and subjects.They are attributes seen as negative and undesirable that are assigned to objects and subjects.
  • They are attributes or qualities.
  • They are positive, desirable, necessary or useful.
  • They are associated with the idea of ​​”good”.
  • They are used as guides for harmonious social behavior.
  • Each of them has a counterpart or antivalue.
  • They are attributes or qualities.
  • They are negative, unnecessary or useless.
  • They are associated with the idea of ​​something “bad.”
  • They are seen as destabilizing social life.
  • For each antivalue there is an opposite value.
ExampleIf there is equity in a company, its workers receive a salary or remuneration according to the work performed, regardless of their gender or sex.In a company where there is inequity, men receive a higher salary or remuneration than women, despite the fact that they all do the same type of work.

What are values?

Generally speaking, values ​​are qualities attributed to objects that human beings see as positive, necessary, and / or desirable .

Thus, a large majority of values ​​are based on subjective motivations, on the positive or practical result that possessing certain qualities implies, associated with the idea of “good” or “useful” .

The values ​​themselves are not a material object , but are attributes that can satisfy a need or desire, assigned by people to something or subject. That is, a value is a quality that someone perceives in a subject or object, be it material or ideal (such as the idea of ​​beauty).

Values ​​(and antivalues) as attributes are a way of ascribing qualities to something or someone. To say that a person is “good” or that stealing is “bad” is to attribute a value. Thus, the values ​​are expressed in a predicative way.

This is why many thinkers point out that both values ​​and anti-values ​​are based on a subjective perspective rather than on the objects or people to whom they are attributed.

In the same way, values ​​are not always equivalent to ethical precepts or moral ideals . Even if there are moral values, there are also values ​​that are related to economic processes, such as the use value of an object, or also aesthetic values ​​related to the idea of ​​beauty when contemplating a work of art.

It is common for values ​​to be seen as innate qualities in the human being. In this way, freedom, for example, is thought of as a value that each person possesses. Likewise, values ​​are understood as behavioral guides for human beings. In this case, values ​​such as honesty are a way of acting that people are expected to have, for the social good.

Characteristics of the securities

  • They are attributes that are assigned to objects and subjects.
  • They represent positive, desirable, useful and / or necessary qualities.
  • They are associated with forms of behavior that allow a harmonious social life.
  • For each value there is an opposite antivalue (peace and war).
  • They are attributable to more than one object or subject and, in turn, each object or subject can have several values.

Examples of values

  • Honesty: it is the quality of telling the truth or acting sincerely.
  • Responsibility: consciously do something and assume its consequences.
  • Prudence: act with diligence and paying attention to the consequences.
  • Justice: it is about parity in the distribution of something as appropriate and equitably.
  • Freedom: the ability to act voluntarily and without limitations.

Objective values ​​and subjective values

In the field of ethics there are debates about the nature of values, particularly it is questioned whether values ​​are human constructions or whether, instead, they exist outside the social world.

Those who affirm that the values ​​are objective , affirm that these exist by themselves , regardless of whether people perceive or experience them in the world or not. In addition, these are outside and do not depend on the objects or subjects in which they are manifested. An example of objective value is life, if it is thought to exist on its own, regardless of whether anyone sees it as a value.

In the case of subjective values , these are characterized because they are relative, depend on who experiences them and are something that is desired or seen as necessary. Their subjectivity is due to the fact that they are human creations and do not exist outside of people . In this case, if there were no humans or intelligent beings who considered values ​​to exist, then there would be no values.

Instrumental values ​​and intrinsic values

Some thinkers claim that values ​​are instrumental . That is to say, that the values ​​”are worth” because by means of these an end is obtained . If health is thought of as an instrumental value, since being healthy allows people to carry out different activities, it is seen as a means to an end.

The intrinsic values are those worth themselves . These values ​​are the “ends” and their quality of value exists outside of people. They differ from instrumental values ​​in that they are not a means of obtaining something.

For example, performing a good deed, as an end in itself, without expecting anything in return in all honesty, is considered an intrinsic value. Pleasure, happiness, health, etc., when they are not desired as means to obtain something beyond themselves, are also intrinsic values.

Max Scheler’s hierarchy of values

In the axiology or study of values , one of the best known classifications of values ​​is that of the German philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928), in which values ​​and antivalues ​​are objective and can be hierarchically ordered.

According to Scheler, values ​​are independent of the objects to which they are attributed and exist a priori (before experiencing reality). That is, the essence of beauty, goodness or nobility already exists, and experience simply allows these to be felt in different objects or people.

Another characteristic of values ​​is that they are polar , so each one has a counterpart. That is, for each value, there is an equivalent antivalue.

In addition to this, Scheler orders the values, giving greater importance to the values ​​associated with the mind and the holy, while the material and physical values ​​are in a lower plane of his hierarchy.

Thus, both values ​​and anti-values, according to this philosopher, can be classified into four categories:

  1. The values ​​of holiness: the religious, that which is holy and the profane.
  2. Those referring to the mind (or spirit): the beautiful and the ugly, the just and the unjust, knowledge of the truth and the false.
  3. Those referring to the vital and the noble: the noble and the vulgar, health and disease.
  4. Those referring to pleasure or displeasure: the pleasant and the painful, the pleasant and the unpleasant.

Value in classical economics

Values ​​have been talked about and meditated on for millennia and from different currents of thought. However, the study of values ​​took on particular relevance during the development of classical economics.

In the 18th century, economists such as Adam Smith (1723-1790), David Ricardo (1772-1823) and others associated the idea of ​​”value” with economic processes in the production of goods.

For the Scottish economist Adam Smith , the value of an object is related to the cost of its production and marketing. In the labor theory of value , labor plays a fundamental role in determining the value of a commodity. This is because producing something always involves the completion of work.

Likewise, the work employed is a constant, unlike the price that the good may have in the market (which is variable).

The English economist David Ricardo agreed with Adam Smith, stating that the labor used in production is a way of measuring the value of a good . However, he noted that the scarcity of a good could also determine its value, regardless of the work it took to produce it.

Use value and exchange value

The value in use is the utility that the asset possesses or is made from it . In this case, the value of a good comes from those needs or uses that people satisfy with it. This value is proper to the good and depends on its characteristics and what it can be used for. Its use and the value derived from it depend on each person or society, so it is a qualitative value .

For its part, the exchange value is the value that results from the exchange of a good for money and / or that allows the acquisition of other goods. The exchange value of a good is linked to the work used to produce or obtain it. This value is quantitative , since money (or goods) can be measured during the exchange.

It may interest you to see 11 examples of essential moral values .

What are antivalues?

The antivalues , basically, are the opposite of the values. If a value is a positive, desirable and necessary quality attributed to an object or person, an antivalue is defined as a negative, undesirable and unnecessary quality that is attributed to an object or person.

An antivalue is understood as something that is not desirable, because its presence leads to negative results. For example, ineffectiveness can be seen as an anti-value because it implies the non-realization of an expected result. If a company has certain objectives and the workers are ineffective, the objectives will not be achieved. Hence, an antivalue is undesirable, does not generate utility and is unnecessary.

Furthermore, antivalues ​​represent an antithesis (opposition) of what values ​​achieve socially . Anti-values ​​such as slavery destroy the harmony of social life, if freedom is seen as a human value (and right). In a society where there is slavery, for example, there is also an anti-value such as injustice. In that case, they are anti-values ​​in a moral sense.

Characteristics of antivalues

  • They are attributes that are assigned to objects and subjects.
  • Its qualities are negative, undesirable, unnecessary and / or of no use.
  • When they manifest themselves in behaviors, they undermine social life.
  • For each antivalue there is an opposite value.
  • An object or subject has several qualities that manifest antivalues, and each antivalue can be assigned to an infinite number of subjects and objects.

Examples of antivalues

  • Dishonesty : using lies or deception.
  • Irresponsibility: acting consciously in breach of what is assigned and / or avoiding its consequences.
  • Recklessness: acting without taking care of the consequences.
  • Injustice : it is when there is an unequal distribution without basis in the actions of the subjects.
  • Slavery: the deprivation of the power to act according to one’s own conscience and will.

See also:

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *