Types of reproduction of living beings

The reproduction is the biological process by which organisms give birth or give rise to a new organism. This process is observed in all living organisms, both plants and animals. Below we will provide you with all the necessary information about these terms.

Sexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction

DefinitionType of reproduction that involves the production of offspring through the fusion of male and female gametesType of reproduction in which only one organism gives rise to a new individual
GametesGametes are involvedGametes are not involved
CharacteristicsHas different characteristics from the parentHas characteristics equal to those of the parent
AncestryTwo parents of different sexesA parent
ExamplesReproduction in cats and dogsReproduction in starfish

What is reproduction?

It is a biological process by which an organism reproduces offspring that are biologically similar to the organism. Reproduction allows and ensures the continuity of the species, generation after generation. It is the main characteristic of life on earth. Here you will find a detailed description of reproduction, its types and modes of reproduction in plants and animals.

Reroduction types

There are basically two types of reproduction:

  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction

“Asexual reproduction refers to the type of reproduction in which only one organism gives rise to a new individual . ” Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes, and therefore the offspring produced are genetically identical to the parents . The organisms produced by asexual reproduction are less diverse in nature. This type of reproduction is widely practiced by single-celled organisms .

The process involves rapid population growth and no mating is required for the process. However, the lack of genetic diversity makes organisms more susceptible to disease and nutritional deficiencies.

Asexual reproduction is further divided into:

  • Binary fission: In this, the cell divides into two cells that carry a copy of the stem cell’s DNA. For example, amoebas.
  • Sprouting: In this, a small sprout-like growth gives rise to a new individual. The outgrowth remains attached to the body until it is fully developed. It comes off as lives as an individual organism. For example, hydras
  • Fragmentation: In this, the parent organism is divided into several parts and each part becomes a new individual. For example, Planaria
  • Sporogenesis : In this type of reproduction, a new organism grows from the spores. These can be created without fertilization and can be spread through the wind and animals.

Sexual reproduction

“Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that involves the production of offspring through the fusion of male and female gametes.” In sexual reproduction, male and female gametes are formed to produce offspring. These gametes are formed by the same individual or by different individuals of the opposite sex.

This process is usually slow and complex compared to asexual reproduction. The organisms thus produced are genetically diverse . Therefore, they can evolve along with changing weather conditions. Humans and many multicellular

organisms exhibit a mode of sexual reproduction.

Reproduction in plants

Plants reproduce by sexual and asexual means . Vegetative reproduction is the main mode of reproduction of plants. Roots such as corm, stem tuber, rhizomes, and stolon undergo vegetative propagation.

Sexual reproduction in plants takes place through pollination in which pollen grains from the anther of a male flower are transferred to the stigma of the female flower. Few plants produce seeds without fertilization and the process is called apomixis . Here, the ovule or ovary gives rise to new seeds.

Reproduction in animals

Animals reproduce both sexually and asexually . Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes. This process is known as fertilization . Fertilization can be external or internal. External fertilization is the process in which the male sperm fertilizes the female egg outside the female’s body. In contrast, in internal fertilization, the fusion of the male and female gametes takes place within the female’s body.

Asexual reproduction involves reproduction processes such as binary fission, budding, fragmentation, etc . Organisms do not have reproductive systems and therefore male and female gametes are not formed.

Thus we see how beneficial reproduction is to continue life on earth.

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