Migration, immigration and emigration

In this troubled world we hear a lot about migration, immigration and emigration . We can give the definitions of each term to understand what each one is about.

Migrations have always existed on the planet for different reasons. Among them are immigration and emigration.

 Definition Movement of people, animals individually or in a group from one place to another. Entry of people or groups to a foreign country to settle. Departure of a person or group from their country of origin to settle in another.
 Origin The term comes from the Latin «migrare» which means to move or change residence. The term comes from the Latin «inmigrare» which means to come from one place to live in another. The term comes from the Latin emigrare which means to move from one place to another.
 App They can be people or animals Persons Persons

What is migration:

It is the movement of individuals or population that leaves their place of residence to settle in another country or region for generally political or social reasons.

Migratory movements can acquire an individual or collective connotation; voluntary or forced Internal or international. There is a collective dimension where entire populations are forced to abandon their lands after wars or to escape oppressive political regimes, the “refugees”; or when, for example, as a result of territorial disturbances caused by peace treaties that modify the borders of a country, there are groups of people who share the same national or ethnic origin to which they are obliged to travel when making the so-called «diaspora ». On the contrary, the individual dimension of migration, together with the hypotheses of forced movement (induced, for example, by natural disasters, internal or international armed conflicts, threats or persecution for ethnic or religious reasons,

Causes of migration

The main causes of migration are due to:

  • Economic reasons (fleeing poverty to seek better living conditions).
  • Work (to find employment and improve in jobs).
  • Due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.)
  • Of a criminal nature (to flee from the justice of the country, avoid arrest).
  • Of a religious nature (due to the impossibility of practicing one’s own cult).
  • To improve instruction (attend a school or university, get a certain degree of study).

Types of migration

  • Voluntary: generally related to the job offer or the need of the workers.
  • Forced: caused by conflicts, human rights violations, political or religious oppression, etc.

Consequences of migration

There are consequences in both the country of departure and the country of arrival.

  • Consequences in the country of departure: migration is often negative because it often causes production sectors to disappear. On the positive side, many times it causes the entry of values ​​that comes from the money remittances sent by the person who migrated to support family members.
  • Consequences in the country of arrival : migrants must adapt to market demands and will do the lowest paid and most precarious jobs. It generally happens that places with a high concentration of migrants are created and that high density causes social risk factors to exist.

What is a migrant?

It is a person who emigrates or leaves his town, city or country to settle in another. It is also called the one who immigrates, that is, who comes from a foreign country.

Migration options:

Within the migration options we have:

  • Immigration
  • Emigration

We will go on to analyze the two terms. These words have the same root and refer to the end of a single action (moving from a place X of the universe cosmos to a place Y) but they express different points of view. Immigration is what comes to us “at home”: place X is outside our borders, that Y is where we are. The point of view of emigration is diametrically opposite: place X is the “home” of those who leave, place Y is the foreign land in which it lands. Migration is the same movement but trapped in its circularity, without fixing the departure or arrival houses. Migrations have marked the history of humanity since its appearance and have made possible the birth of civilizations.

What is immigration:

Immigration is the permanent or temporary entry of people or groups of people to a country or place other than their origin.

the immigrationIt is the permanent or temporary transfer of persons or groups of persons to a country or place other than the one of origin. Also in this case, the reasons that push the immigrant to leave their country of origin are many: escaping poverty, lack of food, environmental disorders, escaping justice, political or religious confrontations, sentimental problems or for Acquiring a specific academic preparation. Currently, the laws of the European Union put the economic autonomy of the immigrant as a necessary condition to have a residence permit and then citizenship, so it is necessary for him to have a regular job or someone who can give him an economic support.

What is an immigrant?

Immigrants are those individuals who immigrate or enter a country that is not of their origin.

Example of an immigrant

When a person or group, for example, lives in Morocco and enters Italy, they are an immigrant.

What is emigration:

It is the act of leaving the country of origin to settle in another place or country other than the one of origin.

the emigrationIt is the social phenomenon that leads an individual or group of people to move from their original place to another place. The emigrant, therefore, is one who lacks the necessary conditions for the full fulfillment of his life and is forced to choose another place to settle. The reasons that can trigger this phenomenon can be multiple: they can be economic, political, social, religious, sentimental, but also for work and education reasons, or in the worst case for reasons related to war or persecution. It is good to distinguish two types of emigrants: the temporary move only for a period in a country other than the country of origin, as happened with the Venetian agricultural workers who in the 19th century moved to Argentina during periods of rest; The permanent emigrant, on the other hand,

What is an emigrant?

Individuals who emigrate or leave their country are called emigrant.

Example of an emigrant

For example, an Argentine who decides to live in Spain, leaving his country of origin is an emigrant.

Mass immigration as a global phenomenon

The migration is the movement of populations or entire social groups from one territory to another , for long periods or forever; The term is also applied in zoology, to define the seasonal transfer of many animal species. The migration is, however, the movement of people or families from their place of origin to another where you can find work and better living conditions. A forcible abandonment of the place of origin to avoid a natural catastrophe or pressure from the enemy is defined as an exodus. The diaspora, as migration, describes the abandonment of the places of origin by an entire people, which, however, does not go to one place but disperses in many directions (the diaspora of the Jews).

Immigration has started to be a worldwide phenomenon after the exodus of the beginning and middle of the last century. The debate between those who argue that states have the right to control, limit or deny access, and those who say they are in favor of open borders free, is heating up.

The immigration is a social phenomenonof great importance and delicate importance in its management. During the last twenty or thirty years, for example, most of the nations of the Western world have had to deal with migrations of people from more problematic contexts, migrations that have led to disadvantages in some cases, also due to the same situation. the lack of preparation and the inability to manage the phenomenon on the part of governments, but in other also important benefits. This is the case, for example, of some states whose economic systems have benefited from the massive influx of migrant labor (see Turkish immigration in Germany). In this case, this workforce, mostly of the working class, was able to make a significant contribution to the local economy and, at the same time, Thanks to true economic independence, he had the opportunity to integrate concretely into German society. . Over the next three years, Turkish citizens residing in Germany will exceed 2.5 million.
The management of migratory flows, in any case, is a matter that the governments of Western countries must address, with adequate preparation. In fact, the need, in the context of a government’s reception policy, must be to establish a series of measures capable of adequately accommodating citizens from a problematic context, and secondly, favoring Inclusion, perhaps through of an efficient social status policy, designed to assist migrants in all phases of this transition. The main problems, of course, are those related to the physical accommodation of immigrants and their job placement. The problems, which often lead the political classes to an absolutely instrumental use of the phenomenon,they point to immigrants exclusively as a problem and never as a resource, as a presence that would only result in the limitation of the possibilities and rights of the indigenous population.

Italy and migration

As for Italy, it must be said that the phenomenon of immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon. In fact, in the two great migratory phases of the 20th century, such as the one at the beginning of the century and the one that developed after the Second World War, Italians constituted that part of the population that moved in search of better conditions (social, work, life). Only during the eighties, and even more so in the following twenty years, Itaia has become a destination for those who, especially from the North African countries, are looking for more favorable living conditions than those that their own country can. offer. It is precisely in these years that the debate among those who believe that it is necessary to close the borders (or at least a strict control of the migratory phenomenon, that allows only those who have adequate guarantees) is increasingly unleashed. to cross the Italian border) and those who, even claiming to respect global geopolitical guidelines (which speak of globalization and opening of borders), demand and demand respect for the rules, and a better reception for those who come from an often tormented country of war, or in difficult situations. The guarantees requested, from those who request ablock of migratory flows , will refer in particular to labor aspects, with the consequent possibility of entering the country only if they are in a working position. Others, however, point out that this would prevent the vast majority of immigrants from moving, as it would be particularly difficult to get a job in a country without even setting foot there, which is why the world needs immigration laws that can solve the different inconveniences caused by migrations.

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