74 examples of organic and inorganic compounds

The organic compounds are those compounds of biological origin, i.e. are produced by living organisms or derived from the same, hence the name. They are characterized by having carbon as a base element, to which other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and many others are joined. They are among the most abundant and diverse on planet Earth and some can be artificially synthesized.

The inorganic compounds are those compounds having no biological origin, that is, can not be formed by living beings. They are characterized by being made up of two or more elements, where carbon is not the base element. These compounds are much simpler and less varied than organic compounds.


38 examples of organic compounds

  1. Acetic acid H 3 CCOOH or ethanoic acid is an organic acid with two carbon atoms, two oxygens and four hydrogens, which is part of the composition of the vinegar that we use in salads.
  2. Ethanol C 2 H 3 OH is part of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer, as well as being used as a disinfectant.
  3. Acetone or Propanone CH 3 (CO) CH 3 is a volatile liquid compound at room temperature that is used to remove chemicals, such as nail polish.
  4. Butane C 4 H 10 is a combustible gas used in cooking and in water heaters.
  5. Sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 is the sugar we use to sweeten food.
  6. Trichloromethane or chloroform CHCl 3 is a compound where one carbon joins one hydrogen and three chlorines and serves as a solvent for fats.
  7. Naphthalene or naphthalene C 10 H 8 is an aromatic compound that is used as a repellent for moths.
  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate or sodium lauryl sulfate C 12 H 25 NaSO 4 is a synthetic organic compound found in detergents and cleaning products.
  9. Methane CH 4 is the simplest organic compound with a single carbon and four hydrogen atoms. It is listed as a greenhouse gas.
  10. Propane C 3 H 8 is a combustible gas used for cooking.
  11. Hexane C 6 H 14 is a six carbon chain, used as a solvent in paints and glues.
  12. Ethene or ethylene C 2 H 4 (H 2 C = CH 2 ) is the simplest alkene between two carbon atoms. It is important for the synthesis of plastics and also as a plant hormone that favors the ripening of fruits.
  13. Lycopene C 40 H 56 with eleven double bonds that gives tomato and other red fruits and vegetables their red color.
  14. Methanol CH 3 OH is the simplest alcohol and is used as a solvent.
  15. Iso-Propanol or Isopropyl Alcohol C 3 H 8 O is an alcohol used as a skin disinfectant.
  16. Glycerin or Glycerol C 3 H 8 O 3 is a viscous, water-soluble alcohol that is used as an antifreeze agent.
  17. Cholesterol C 27 H 46 O is a lipid precursor of steroid hormones such as testosterone and progesterone and is part of cell membranes.
  18. Citric acid C 6 H 8 O 7 is an organic acid that is part of the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.
  19. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 is the most abundant simple sugar in nature that serves as a source of energy for living beings.
  20. Fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 is a monosaccharide sugar found in fruits and honey.
  21. Uric acid C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3 is a heterocyclic organic compound that results from the metabolism of nucleic acids and is excreted in the urine of humans.
  22. Formic acid or methanoic acid HCOOH is an organic acid synthesized by most ants as a defense.
  23. Linolenic acid C 18 H 32 O 2 is an essential fatty acid also known as omega-3 that is part of cell membranes.
  24. Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amine groups (-NH 2 ) and carboxyl groups (-COOH) and that are part of proteins.
  25. Purine C 5 H 4 N 4 is a water-soluble heterocyclic organic compound that is the basis for other nitrogenous compounds such as adenine and guanine, which are part of nucleic acids.
  26. Pyrimidine C 4 H 4 N 2 is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound from which the nitrogenous bases of the nucleic acids cytosine, thymine and uracil are derived.
  27. Formaldehyde CH 2 O or methanal is an aldehyde commonly used to preserve living tissues.
  28. Benzene C 6 H 6 is an aromatic compound that was used as a gasoline additive.
  29. Trinitrotoluene or TNT C 7 H 5 N 3 O 6 is an explosive material.
  30. Ethyl ether or diethyl ether C 4 H 10 O is a volatile organic compound that was used initially as an anesthetic.
  31. Polyethylene is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer that is formed from ethylene (H 2 C = CH 2 ).
  32. Polypropylene is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer that is formed from propylene alkene (H 2 C = CH-CH 3 ).
  33. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a plastic polymer formed by C 2 H 3 Cl junctions used in furniture, electrical insulation and pipes.
  34. Polystyrene is the material with which animes are made, composed of unions between phenylethene C 8 H 8 .
  35. Nylon is a family of synthetic polymers based on polyamides that has application in the textile industry.
  36. Teflon or polytetrafluoroethylene used as a non-stick coating on cookware.
  37. DDT or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is a banned insecticide in much of the world for its harmful effects on human health.
  38. Trichlorofluoromethane CFCl 3 is part of the chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs), previously used as industrial refrigerants and which were banned when their negative impact on the ozone layer of the atmosphere was detected.

It may interest you to know the difference between organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry .

36 examples of inorganic compounds

  1. Water H 2 O is one of the most important inorganic compounds for life on planet Earth.
  2. Sodium chloride NaCl is the common salt that we use in food preparation.
  3. Hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 or hydrogen peroxide is used to clean wounds.
  4. Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 is one of the most used inorganic compounds in cooking, baking and cleaning.
  5. Carbon monoxide CO is a gas composed of a carbon atom and an oxygen atom that is produced in the combustion of organic compounds. Despite having carbon in its composition, CO is an inorganic compound.
  6. Carbon dioxide CO 2 is the gas that is released when we expire in respiration, it is not an organic compound but plants in photosynthesis transform it into sugar which is an organic compound.
  7. Magnesium Sulfate MgSO 4 is a compound found in Epsom salt or Fig salt and is used to treat pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.
  8. Zinc Oxide ZnO is a water-insoluble compound made up of zinc and oxygen, which is part of cosmetics and sunscreen.
  9. Sodium monofluorophosphate Na 2 PO 3 F is a salt made up of sodium, phosphorous, oxygen, and fluorine that is found in some toothpastes.
  10. Aluminum chloride AlCl 3 is a compound made up of one aluminum atom and three chlorine atoms that is used in the production of aluminum.
  11. Hydrochloric acid HCl is a strong and corrosive acid. The cells of the stomach produce it to digest food, mainly proteins.
  12. Sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 is another strong inorganic acid made up of sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen that is used in vehicle batteries and in cleaning pipes.
  13. Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 is a weak acid formed by phosphorus, hydrogen and oxygen that is used in the synthesis of fertilizers and detergents.
  14. Nitric acid HNO 3 is a strong corrosive acid formed by nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen used mainly in the production of fertilizers.
  15. Sodium Hydroxide NaOH or Caustic Soda is a strong alkaline base made up of sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has various applications: in the production of soaps, paper and drainage of pipes.
  16. Calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 is a base commonly known as lime that is used in the treatment of corn and other foods.
  17. Barium Hydroxide Ba (OH) 2 is a strong base made up of barium, hydrogen and oxygen that is used in chemistry laboratories.
  18. Silver nitrate AgNO 3 is an inorganic salt composed of silver, nitrogen and oxygen that is used in staining in biology as a silver stain. Formerly it was used as an antiseptic.
  19. Potassium permanganate KMnO 4 or potassium manganate (VII) is a salt composed of manganese, potassium and oxygen with applications in medicine.
  20. Iron Sulfate (II) FeSO 4 is a salt of iron, sulfur and oxygen that is used to supplement food products with iron.
  21. Iron sulfide FeS 2 or iron pyrite, also known as fool’s gold, is a mineral formed by iron and sulfur of a golden color and used in the manufacture of Energizer lithium batteries .
  22. Copper sulfate CuSO 4 is a salt of copper, sulfur and oxygen used as a fungicide in agriculture.
  23. Calcium Carbonate CaCO 3 is a salt of calcium, carbon and oxygen used in construction and in the treatment of heartburn.
  24. Copper oxide (I) Cu 2 O or red cuprous oxide formed by copper and oxygen is used for pigmentation and against fungi.
  25. Nitrous oxide N 2 O or laughing gas is a gas made up of nitrogen and oxygen with an anesthetic effect.
  26. Sulfur dioxide SO 2 is a toxic gas that is released naturally in volcanic eruptions.
  27. Silicon oxide or silica SiO 2 that makes up the sand and from which the glass is produced.
  28. Al 2 SiO aluminosilicates that are part of zeolites, Andalusites that are used in detergents, medicine and agriculture.
  29. Aluminosilicates of calcium CaAl 2 If 2 O 8 used as food additive as E556.
  30. Sodium azide NaN 3 is a toxic ionic compound formed by nitrogen and sodium and used as a preservative in biochemical laboratories.
  31. NaCN sodium cyanide is a respiratory poison made up of sodium, carbon and nitrogen
  32. Calcium Phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is part of the bones.
  33. Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S is a compound used by certain organisms in the chemosynthesis process, and it is what gives it the characteristic rotten egg odor of flatulence and swamps.
  34. Prussian Blue Fe 4 (Fe (CN) 6 ) 3 ) is an inorganic compound made up of iron, carbon and nitrogen that is used as a blue pigment in prints.
  35. Cisplatin PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 is an anticancer drug made up of platinum, chlorine, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
  36. Berzelianite Cu 2 Se is a selenium copper mineral.

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