# Deductive and inductive method

The **inductive method** : method that moves from the study of sensible experiences to arrive at a general and universal definition. From the Latin “Inductio”, induced, by means of the particular. While the **deductive method** is the method that moves from axioms and postulates to derive proofs and explain the phenomena.

The deductive and inductive methods differ mainly in the procedure used in scientific research.

Index ## Deductive method | ## Inductive method | |

Goes from | The general to the particular | The particular to the general |

Del latin | About to marry | Inductive |

It’s based on | Reasoning and logic | Observation and experimentation |

Part | Observation of a hypothesis or statement of a general nature | Observation of reality |

## What is the deductive method:

Method that starts from general definitions to derive evidence and explain the phenomena. The **deductive method** is a cognitive process from the **general to the particular** . In the deductive model, the scientist starts from general principles to arrive at the enunciation of laws capable of explaining particular phenomena.

The deductive method derives from the Latin “de ducere.” The deductive procedure leads from the general to the particular and is based on reasoning and logic.

By **deduction** is understood the logical procedure that consists of deriving, from one or more given premises, a conclusion that represents the logically necessary consequence.

Following deductive reasoning, we start from one or more theoretical premises of a general nature, and through the observation of the phenomena we come to deduce some particular conditions that are the logical consequence.

### Characteristics of the deductive method

* It goes from the general to the particular

* The conclusion is contained in the premises

* Method used in formal sciences.

### Example of deductive method

With the **deductive method we start from a hypothesis** , that is, from a general statement and, using a series of logical deductions, we come to formulate an economic law.

**Example:** We want to see how e-book purchases vary as per capita income changes.

It is based on the hypothesis that the consumption of goods increases with the increase in per capita income. E-books are active, so we can deduce that the purchase of e-books increases as per capita income increases.

In other words, we arrive at the formulation of an economic law through a series of logical deductions that take us from a general statement to a particular one. This method is based solely on the use of logic.

#### Deduction history

The origins and history of the deductive method: The Greek philosopher Aristotle uses the deductive method to build the concept of the Aristotelian syllogism, on the basis of which from two general statements a particular conclusion can be reached following logical reasoning.

## What is the inductive method:

**Scientific method** that moves from the study of particular experiences to arrive at a general and universal definition. From induced Latin, that is, to lead, to draw by means of the particular.

**Induction:** means the logical procedure that consists in deriving from general observations and experiencing the general principles implicit in them.

In this method, we proceed to the observation of facts, information, classification and study of the facts and through them we come to formulate a hypothesis that explains, which gives a general logical sense to the observed phenomena.

**In short,** the general principles implicit in the observation of the particular are sought.

This method has ancient historical origins and was supported by Bacon (Sir Francis Bacon, the English philosopher who lived between 1561 and 1626): it depends on the collection of a broad base of empirical information, on which the construction of an explanatory theory is based. of phenomena.

### Inductive method characteristics

* Part of the particular to the general

* It is limited to observation of phenomena

* The conclusions are probable but they can turn out to be false

* It is used in Sciences within the hypothetical-deductive method.

### Inductive method example

With the **inductive method** we start from the observation of reality: from the examination of a large number of cases, we try to arrive at the formulation of a law that has general validity.

**Example:** to see the relationship between the change in e-book purchase and the change in per capita income, we proceed to examine the behavior of a group of consumers, leading to the preparation of a statistic and, subsequently, to the formulation of a report. between the two variables.

In other words, we arrive at the formulation of an economic law by examining economic phenomena. In this case, therefore, from examination of the details we come to a general conclusion. So with this method, unlike the deductive method, we do not use logic, but we base our conclusions on experience.

##### Induction history

The **origins and history of induction** . The inductive method has been known since the birth of Greek philosophy. The Greek philosopher Aristotle credits Socrates with having discovered the inductive method. In the seventeenth century, the inductive method was reevaluated by Francisco Bacone, contributing to the birth of modern scientific research, based on observation and experimentation.