Branches of medicine

The medicine is the science that deals with studying the health and diseases of the human body. This science has a huge scientific field thanks to the large volume of knowledge it possesses. This knowledge is classified in the different branches of medicine.

Next we will know the main ones.


Branches of medicineWhat studies
CardiologyDiseases of the heart and circulatory system.
Allergology Allergies and their manifestations.
GastroenterologyDigestive system and its diseases.
EndocrinologyEndocrine system and its diseases.
HematologyDiseases that are related to blood.
InfectologyDiseases generated by the action of an external pathogen.
GeriatricsDiseases in the elderly.
Family and community medicineHealth in all aspects.
NeurologyNervous system and its diseases.
Sports medicineEffects of sport on human beings.
Work MedicineDiseases derived from work.
NutriologiaHuman nutrition and metabolic processes.
OphthalmologyDiseases of the eyeball, its muscles, the eyelids and the lacrimal system.
Medical oncologyCancer patient care and treatment.
Radiation OncologyCancer treatment through radiation.
AnesthesiologyAttention and care of patients undergoing surgery.
PediatricsChildren and the diseases that can manifest in them.
Physical medicine and rehabilitationErgonomic, occupational and social reintegration functionality of people with motor disease.
Emergency medicinediseases or accidents that are of an urgent nature.
Aerospace medicinePathologies generated by the exposure of certain environments.
Intensive medicinePatients in critical condition.
Internal MedicinePatients affected by various pathologies.
Psychiatrymental disorders of genetic or neurological origin.
ToxicologyToxic substances.
Forensic and legal medicineOrigin of injuries or cause of death.
preventive medicine and public healthWays to promote and protect health.
NephrologyStructure and function of the urinary system.
PneumologyThe respiratory system and its diseases.
Veterinary MedicineDiagnosis and treatment of diseases in animals.
Thoracic surgerySurgical intervention for chest problems.
NeurosurgerySurgical interventions of the nervous system.
Cardiovascular surgerySurgical interventions of the circulatory system.
General and digestive surgerySurgical interventions of the digestive system.
Orthopedic Surgery and TraumatologySurgical interventions of the locomotor system.
Pediatric surgerySurgical interventions for children.
Angiology and vascular surgeryDiseases related to blood vessels.
Clinical analysisAnalysis of the patient’s fluids and tissues.
Clinical BiochemistryBiochemical properties of substances.
DermatologyProblems caused in the skin and integumentary structures.
odontologyDiseases generated in the stomatognathic apparatus.
Gynecology and ObstetricsFemale reproductive system, pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum.
OtorhinolaryngologyThe ear and the respiratory tract.
UrologyUrinary system, adrenal glands and retroperitoneum. Male reproductive system.
TraumatologyMusculoskeletal injuries.
ImmunologyThe immune system.
Nuclear medicineDetection of diseases through radiological techniques.
Clinical pharmacologyThe drugs.
Medical geneticsHereditary disorders.
Microbiology and parasitologyMicroorganisms and parasites.

The medicine is a science that is constantly incorporating new knowledge, because every year there are new diseases and therefore new sub disciplines to analyze them and enrich knowledge.

As we know, medicine studies the health of the human being. This science is divided into several branches that study the large number of diseases that exist and those that will appear over time. There is a traditional classification of medicine that divides into four large groups and within each of them the various branches or disciplines.

These branches are: clinical medical branches, surgical medical branches, medical-surgical branches, laboratory or diagnostic medical branches.

Clinical medical branches

The branches of clinical medicine are those in which different patients are intervened, either in prevention, diagnosis and treatment, but without the need to resort to surgical interventions. Within clinical medicine we find the following disciplines or specific branches:


Cardiology is the branch that deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Doctors specializing in this branch have done so without resorting to surgery.

2. Allergology

Allergology is the branch of medical science that focuses its study on allergies and their manifestations. This means that it studies the pathologies that are generated by the activation of the different autoimmunity mechanisms.

Allergies can be caused by food, medicines, insects, external agents such as dust, strong odors, among others.

3. Anesthesiology and resuscitation

Anesthesiology is the branch that deals with offering care and attention to those patients who will be operated on surgically or in certain processes in which anesthesia is necessary due to the pain or discomfort they cause. This branch also deals with the recovery of the patient after the intervention, helping him to regain consciousness and avoid post-operative pain.

Analysis of drug components and administration of anesthesia are very important.

4. Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the branch that studies the endocrine system of human beings and the diseases generated by its malfunction. Among these diseases we can find myelitic diabetes, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease, and so on.

5. Hematology and hemotherapy

Hematology is the branch that deals with treating those people who suffer from diseases that are related to blood. This type of disease can be generated by the poor quality of it, or because the organs are in charge of producing it, such as bone marrow, lymph nodes and the spleen, are not working well.

With regard to hemotherapy, it deals with blood transfusions or plasma transfusions for the treatment of certain hematological diseases.

6. Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine that is responsible for studying the digestive system as a whole. Within the organs of this system we find: esophagus, stomach, liver, biliary tract, pancreas, intestines, colon and rectum.

Some of the procedures and studies that are carried out to analyze the functioning of these organs and possible diseases are endoscopies, colonoscopies, liver biopsies, among others.

7. Infectology

Infectology is the branch that deals with analyzing those diseases that are generated by the action of an external pathogen such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi.

8. Geriatrics

Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment of diseases in the elderly. Geriatrics is responsible for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of older adults.

9. Family and community medicine

Family medicine is one that deals with the analysis, prevention and treatment of health in all aspects. It is a primary action, since they usually analyze, determine diseases and refer to specialists in each case

10. Neurology

Neurology is the branch of medicine that studies diseases generated by a malfunction of the nervous system, be it the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system or the peripheral nervous system.

11. Sports medicine

Sports medicine, as its name implies, is the branch that deals with analyzing the effects that sport produces on human beings. This study is done to try to avoid injuries or illnesses related to the performance of certain exercises, we derive from the practice without the necessary care. As has been shown, sport and physical exercise have a favorable influence on people’s health, both in cardiovascular terms, as well as in metabolism and the locomotor system.

12. Occupational medicine

Occupational medicine is the branch in charge of analyzing and treating the diseases that derive from the different jobs. This discipline is also in charge of the different protocols that must be carried out to avoid accidents and injuries.

13. Nutriologia

Nutriology or also called nutrition, is that branch of medicine that analyzes human nutrition and its relationship with the different metabolic, biological and chemical processes. It also deals with studying the patient’s body composition and the patient’s health.

14. Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with analyzing the problems and diseases that can be generated in the eyeball, its muscles, the eyelids and the lacrimal system.

15. Medical oncology

Oncology is the discipline that deals with the care and treatment of those patients who have been determined with cancer disease. Among the best known treatments indicated for this disease we can find: chemotherapy and hormone and drug therapies.

16. Radiation Oncology

Radiation oncology is the branch that focuses on the treatment of cancer patients through radiation. These treatments are carried out using specialized techniques such as X-rays, gemma rays, electron beams and ionizing radiation.

17. Pediatrics

Pediatrics is the branch of medicine specialized in the study of the child and the diseases that can manifest themselves during the first years of life, development and maturation. In general, this specialty covers from the birth of the child until it reaches adolescence or ends it.

This branch is a quite particular specialty given that, in general, children require special treatment and that also the parents play a fundamental role in any decision as well as the information of the minor, who in many cases cannot express themselves.

18. Physical medicine and rehabilitation or physiatry

Physiatry or also called physical medicine, is the branch that deals with promoting health, proposing as a fundamental basis the achievement of ergonomic, occupational and social reintegration of those people who suffer or have suffered some type of motor disease that causes them a disability.

19. Emergency medicine

Emergency medicine is the branch that acts on diseases or accidents that are of an urgent nature. This means that they can put the life of the patient at risk in the short term and on which immediate intervention is required.

20. Aerospace Medicine

Aerospace medicine is the branch that deals with the study of pathological conditions caused as a result of having exposed the human body to environments for which it is not adapted. A clear example is outer space, high altitudes where there is little oxygen or deep sea.

21. Intensive medicine

Intensive medicine is the branch of medicine that treats those people who are in a critical state of illness and who need constant supervision and monitoring.

22. Internal medicine

Internal medicine is the medical branch that focuses on caring for patients who are affected by various pathologies, and as a consequence, they need a complex treatment since there are several organ systems that are affected.

23. Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that studies the different mental disorders of genetic or neurological origin and aims to prevent, evaluate, diagnose and treat these types of pathologies.

24. Toxicology

Toxicology is the branch that identifies, studies and details the doses, nature and severity of certain substances that can cause some organic damage to the human body.

25. Forensic and legal medicine

Forensic medicine is the branch that specializes in the application of the medical and biological knowledge necessary to solve problems posed by a certain legal action. The main objective is to be able to collaborate in determining the origin of the injuries or the cause of death in special situations such as: traffic accident, murder, suicide or any other event requested by the justice.

26. Preventive medicine and public health

Preventive medicine is the branch in charge of promoting and protecting health, as well as controlling how healthy habits are carried out within society as a whole in order to detect the medical needs that the population needs.

27. Nephrology

Nephrology is the branch dedicated to the study of the structure and function of the urinary system, both in those cases where there are pathological situations and in cases in which there is no lack of health.

28. Pneumology

Pulmonology studies and analyzes the respiratory system, which is made up of the lungs, the pleura and the mediastinum.

29. Veterinary medicine

Veterinary medicine is a branch of medicine that specializes in applying the knowledge derived from medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in animals.

Surgical medical branches

They are the branches in which surgical techniques are used . There are certain diseases before which it is necessary to perform some surgery in order to improve and treat the patient’s disease or surgery with a preventive purpose.

30. Thoracic surgery

Thoracic surgery is the medical branch that deals with the study and surgical intervention of problems that are caused in the thorax.

31. Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery is the branch dedicated to the management of diseases that affect the central, peripheral and autonomic or vegetative nervous systems.

32. Cardiovascular surgery

It is the surgical branch that deals with surgical interventions that involve the circulatory system, particularly the heart and blood vessels.

33. General and digestive system surgery

General surgery is a surgical specialty in charge of intervening in everything related to the digestive system.

34. Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology

Orthopedic surgery is the surgical specialty that focuses on problems related to diseases and disorders in the locomotor system, both in the bones, as well as in the muscles or joints.

35. Pediatric surgery

Pediatric surgery is the branch that deals with surgeries derived from diseases and medical problems that the fetus, infant, child, adolescent and young adult may present.

Medical-surgical branches

These branches combine both surgical intervention and the action of less invasive techniques from the more clinical setting, such as the use of drugs.

36. Angiology and vascular surgery

It is the branch in charge of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to blood vessel problems.

37. Clinical analysis

The clinical analyzes are in charge of confirming or discharging diseases through the analysis of the patient’s fluids and tissues.

38. Clinical biochemistry

Clinical biochemistry focuses on the study of the biochemical properties of substances, both in vitro and in vivo. This branch aims to offer information for the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of certain medical disorders.

39. Dermatology

Dermatology is the branch specialized in the study and treatment of problems caused in the skin and integumentary structures (nails and hair).

40. Dentistry

Dentistry is based on the study and treatment of diseases generated in the stomatognathic apparatus. It is made up of the teeth, gums, periodontal tissue, the two jaws and the temporomandibular joint.

41. Gynecology and obstetrics or obstetrics

This branch of medicine is in charge of the study and control of the female reproductive system, including pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum.

42. Otolaryngology

Otolaryngology is the medical specialty that is responsible for studying the ear and the respiratory tract.

43. Urology

Urology is the branch that deals with pathologies that affect the urinary system, adrenal glands and retroperitoneum, as well as the male reproductive system.

44. Traumatology

Traumatology is the medical specialty that deals with injuries to the locomotor system, both due to an accident and due to a congenital disease.

Laboratory or diagnostic medical

They are specializations that need the support of the other branches, since they need to accurately specify the hypotheses that are raised during the clinical diagnosis. In addition, these branches are a guide for decisions about surgical interventions.

45. Immunology

It is the medical branch that is responsible for the study of the immune system. This system is responsible for detecting external elements that can harm the body.

46. ​​Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is the branch that uses radiological techniques, such as radiopharmaceuticals and radiotracers, in order to diagnose and treat diseases.

47. Clinical pharmacology

Clinical pharmacology studies the different properties of drugs, which are their mechanisms of action, therapeutic action, the side effects they produce, indications and contraindications, among others.

48. Medical genetics

Medical genetics is the branch that applies the knowledge of genetics in medicine in order to explain certain disorders of hereditary origin and how to intervene depending on the genotype of each patient.

49. Microbiology and parasitology

It is the branch in charge of studying and analyzing microorganisms and parasites that generate some type of medical condition in the body.

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