21 types of interview: work, journalistic, psychological and clinical

There are several types of interview that are classified, among other things, by the field in which they are applied. The parameters of a job interview, for example, seek different objectives than those of a journalistic or psychological interview.

An interview can be defined as a resource for gathering information through questions. The type and number of questions will vary according to the interview and the type of data to be obtained.

These are some types of interviews and their most outstanding characteristics.

Types of job interviews

There are several methodologies to apply in a job selection process. These are the most common types of job interview:

Interview according to technique

Depending on the technique used in the round of questions, job interviews can be free, structured, semi-structured or critical indexes.

1. Free interview

The objective of this type of job interview is that the candidate can express himself openly; in this way the coach can know relevant aspects of their personality or way of thinking.

2. Structured interview

It is a type of interview in which the questions have been prepared in advance. Generally, it is a questionnaire that is applied generically to all candidates.

3. Semi-structured interview

The semi-structured job interview or mixed interview, combines the questions of a structured interview with open questions, which allow to know other key aspects of the candidate, such as their family history or personal anecdotes.

4. Critical incident interview

It is an interview in which you want to thoroughly analyze the candidate’s work experience. For this reason, it is common to be asked about specific events, such as the personal and professional resources that you used to achieve a certain objective, or how you resolved a critical situation.

Interview according to the number of participants

1. Individual interview

It is that interview that is carried out in a 1/1 format, that is, an interviewer and a candidate. It is the most common type of job interview.

2. Interview with panel of experts

The candidate must answer questions from a panel of interviewers that are generally part of different areas of the company (human resources, finance, the department in which the vacancy is available, etc.).

3. Chained interviews

The candidate for the position must go through a series of interviews with different recruiters. In many cases, it can be processes that take weeks or months while the meeting with the next interviewer takes place.

Interviews according to environment

1. Facilitating interview

As the name suggests, the goal of this interview is to create a relaxed atmosphere for the candidate. Generally, it is a private space, free from external noise and distractions. In addition, the coach usually emphasizes the relaxed nature of the match and can classify it as a “conversation”.

2. Tension interview

In this case, the interview takes place in a very rigid environment. The coach tests the candidate by generating an environment of discomfort that triggers an emotional response. The objective of this type of interview is to determine the interviewee’s levels of self-control and stress management.

Due to its characteristics, it is not a common type of job interview, except in cases of job search for positions of high emotional demand, such as high-profile managers or positions that imply being responsible for large commercial operations or for the lives of other people (as sales manager, air traffic controller, etc.).

Interview according to the medium used

1. Face-to-face interview

It is one that takes place in a specific physical space, which is usually located in the company’s facilities.

2. Telephone interview

The interview is done by phone, usually to confirm some basic information, and then to schedule a face-to-face interview.

3. Internet interview

It is a very popular type of interview nowadays, because it allows combining the immediacy of video calls with the convenience of not having to travel to the company. It is a common modality for interviewing candidates for remote positions, so distance is not usually a limitation in this case.

Types of journalistic interviews

In the journalistic field, interviews can be:

1. Personality interview

It is a type of interview written in the form of a narrative in which the responses of the interviewee are combined with anecdotal data about the moment of the conversation (way of dressing, speaking, situations that occurred at the time, attitude, etc.).

2. Biographical interview

In this type of interview, questions and answers are combined, also showing different edges of the interviewee that allow to have a more complete vision not only about their career, but also about their interests and personal history.

3. Opinion interview

The objective of this type of interview is to consult a person (generally outstanding in a particular field) on an aspect of public interest.

4. Current interview

It is the consultation of a person or group of people about a news or current issue. The interviewee or group of interviewees may be specialists on the subject, witnesses to a news event, or an unknown person who is affected or could be affected by the subject in question.

Types of psychological interviews

Psychological interviews can be classified into four types:

1. Initial interview

It is the conversation that takes place for the first time between psychologist and patient within the therapeutic care space. The objective is for the therapist to obtain essential data from the patient, while the latter will explain the reason for their consultation.

2. Complementary interview

It is a collection of data that, although not closely related to the reason for consultation, can be used by the psychologist to obtain valuable information for treatment.

3. Return interview

The psychologist responds to the patient’s concerns, while describing the type and characteristics of the treatment to be carried out.

4. Discharge interview

When the therapeutic process has been completed, the psychologist must do a final interview to formally end the treatment. This is the last meeting between the psychologist and the patient.

Clinical interview

It is the conversation that is established between doctor and patient. It has three stages:

  • Contact : it is the first meeting between doctor and patient. The health professional must ensure that the patient feels confident and, at the same time, must collect clinical data of interest to structure the medical history and have enough elements to make a diagnosis.
  • Development : in this phase the possible problem is addressed, the pertinent diagnosis is made and the rigorous measures are taken to confirm or treat it (blood tests, ultrasounds, medication, etc.).
  • Closing : the interview concludes with a scheduled appointment (if necessary) and the patient can express their doubts so that the doctor can make the necessary clarifications.

See also Difference between questionnaire and survey.

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