Scientific, empirical, religious and philosophical knowledge

The Theory of Knowledge in Philosophy is called epistemology. This science deals with the different types of knowledge among which are those that today we are going to analyze the differences and which are: Scientific knowledge, Empirical knowledge, Religious knowledge, Philosophical knowledge .

What is itIt is what we learn from the scientific process, which involves experimenting, collecting data, analyzing it, often using statistics and calculations, and then drawing conclusions from those results.It is the information acquired by observation or experimentation. Scientists record and analyze this data. They begin by formulating questions, or hypotheses, and then acquiring knowledge through observations and experiments to support or disprove a specific theory.Religion aims to answer some of life’s most important questions, such as the reason for our existence, human suffering, and the mysterious ways of the universe, through faith, dogmas, and actions reflected in a sacred being.Philosophical knowledge is the use of reason to reflect on the most general truths of the world, being able to obtain knowledge of it without requiring the principles of other disciplines
checkVerifiableVerifiableNot verifiableNot verifiable
AspectsIt focuses mainly, but not exclusively, on the “inanimate” aspects of existence: the nonvolitional and totally passive realities of so-called “dead matter.”Like scientific knowledge, it deals mainly with the “inanimate” aspects.It is primarily concerned with the domains of the “animate”: volitional, reactive, and proactive living with the development of a system that integrates them intelligently.
InterestsScience is interested in unlocking the hidden power of matter.Empirical knowledge is interested in releasing the hidden power of matter through experience.Religion is interested in unlocking the hidden potential of each individual and the collective potential of the great cosmic brotherhood, the great brotherhood of the children of God.The philosophy explores how we can align the perceptions of power of science with the appreciation of the wisdom of religion and realize our potential more effectively.

What is scientific knowledge

Scientific knowledge is what we learn from the scientific process , which involves experimenting and collecting data . Scientific investigation is the collection of data to investigate and explain a phenomenon. The idea of ​​science is that you can only learn about a phenomenon in a reliable and accurate way through the collection of empirical data. The scientific process is designed to reduce human bias as much as possible and to make our conclusions as accurate as possible.

Part of the scientific process concerns what you do after the data is collected . Once you have collected the data, it is analyzed , often using statistics and calculations, and then conclusions are drawn from those results. But how do we know that those conclusions are accurate? One way is through a process called peer review, which is where research is scrutinized and criticized by fellow scientists. This process must be completed before any scientific article is published, and it eliminates a lot of faulty research. It’s a big part of why science has been so successful in explaining the world.

Characteristics of scientific knowledge

  • Scientific knowledge depends on EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION.
  • Scientific knowledge is FALSIFIABLE.
  • Scientific knowledge is NON-NORMATIVE.
  • Scientific knowledge must be TRANSMISSIBLE.
  • Scientific knowledge is CUMULATIVE.
  • Scientific knowledge is GENERAL.
  • Scientific knowledge is EXPLANATORY.
  • Scientific knowledge must have SIMPLICITY.

Examples of scientific knowledge

  • Newton’s laws of motion
  • Determining that the Earth revolves around the Sun
  • The theory of relations between angles, Thales theory
  • Computing and the development of computer systems
  • The Pythagorean Theorem
  • The components of a molecule

What is empirical knowledge

The empirical evidence is acquired information by observation or experiment. Scientists record and analyze this data. The process is a central part of the scientific method. The latter begins with scientists asking questions, or hypotheses, and then acquiring knowledge through observations and experiments to support or disprove a specific theory. “Empirical” means “based on observation or experience.” Empirical research is the process of finding empirical evidence. Empirical data is the information that comes from research. Before collecting the latter, scientists carefully design their research methods to ensure the accuracy, quality, and integrity of the data. If there are flaws in the way the empirical data is collected, the research will not be considered valid.qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative research , often used in the social sciences, examines the reasons behind human behavior, according to Oklahoma State University. This is data that can be found using the human senses. This type of research is often done at the beginning of an experiment.

Quantitative research involves methods that are used to collect numerical data and analyze it using statistical methods, according to the Copenhagen University of Information Technology. Quantitative numerical data can be any data that uses measurements, including mass, size, or volume, according to Midwestern State University in Wichita Falls, Texas. This type of research is often used at the end of an experiment to refine and test previous research.

Characteristics of empirical knowledge

  • Specific research questions must be asked to be answered.
  • Definition of the population, behavior or phenomena under study.
  • Description of the process used to study this population or phenomena, including selection criteria, controls, and test instruments (such as surveys)

To communicate the results of empirical research, 4 components are typically established:

  • Introduction: sometimes called a “literature review” – what is currently known on the subject – generally includes a theoretical framework and / or discussion of previous studies
  • Methodology: sometimes called “research design” – how to recreate the study – generally describes the population, the research process, and the analytical tools
  • Results: sometimes called ‘findings’ – what was learned through the study – usually appear as statistical data or as substantial citations from research participants
  • Discussion: sometimes called ‘conclusion’ or ‘implications’: why the study is important, generally describes how the research results influence professional practices or future studies

Examples of the empiric knowledge or

  • The fire burns
  • Riding a bicycle
  • Domestication of animals
  • Oranges provide vitamin C
  • Tie the laces
  • Wood floats

What is religious knowledge

The classification of religion as an ‘Area of ​​knowledge’, as well as the inclusion of faith as a ‘Way of knowing’ can be disputed. Although most people recognize that religion plays a vital role in the lives of many, atheists will likely question to what extent religion or faith can be sources and areas of knowledge. However, one must understand that many peoples and cultures have organized their lives around religion.

Religion aims to answer some of life’s biggest questions, such as the reason for our existence, human suffering, and the mysterious ways of the universe.. There are various views of religion. Theism affirms that the universe is created and governed by a powerful and omnipotent God. Among the major world religions, Judeanism, Islam, and Christianity are examples of theistic religions. On the other hand, a pantheistic view of religion is based on the notion that God is everything and everything is part of God. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Toaism are pantheistic religions. Agnostic knowers do not accept or deny the existence of God or a higher reality. They are aware of their ‘ignorance’, which is an interesting point of view from a TOK perspective.

The problems of proof, the validity and rationality in religion lead some people to adopt an atheistic stance. ‘An atheist denies the existence of a creator God and believes that the universe is material in nature and does not have a spiritual dimension. Regardless of your stance on religion as an Area of ​​Knowledge, one cannot deny that religious knowledge is highly dependent on the community of knowledge, which in turn is influenced by memory, language, and individual and shared emotions. Religion plays an important role when we make value judgments and faith is an invaluable way of knowing when analyzing religious knowledge.

Characteristics of religious knowledge

  • In religious knowledge, the person and the reality that surrounds him will be conceived with something superior, a divinity. This will allow those people to believe faithfully in something that cannot be verified.
  • Religious knowledge is a dogma that can be acquired through a holy book.
  • An additional characteristic that this type of knowledge has is that it is based on oral or written tradition, and therefore sooner or later, it will become normative, this means that it produces rules, norms and values ​​that must be fulfilled without admitting any type of questioning. At the same time it generates rituals and actions reflected in a sacred being.
  • On the other hand, religious knowledge offers the opportunity to explain life events from a sacred and supernatural perspective to order and harmonize our world.

Examples of religious knowledge

  • Beginning of life with Adam and Eve
  • The creation of the universe in 7 days in the hands of God
  • That Jesus Christ has been sent by the Holy Spirit to earth

What is philosophical knowledge

Philosophical knowledge is the use of reason to reflect on the most general truths of the world, being able to obtain knowledge of it without requiring the principles of other disciplines. According to Aristoteles , philosophy does not need other sciences to be understood, nor for any of its conclusions to be believed. Some philosophers have believed that philosophy gave us the highest form of knowledge, making it the first and most important science.

Other philosophers, like Saint Thomas Aquinas , believed that philosophy was the second importance of theology. Theology was superior because it revealed truths that were above reason but not contrary to reason. Philosophy was still the highest science that did not begin with divine revelation. You could use theological truths as a way to verify philosophical conclusions, but the conclusions did not require theological training.

After Aquino , his position was rejected in two different ways. A group of philosophers claimed that philosophy did not give knowledge because only theology could do that. These Bible theologians only claimed that we must start with the Bible and end with the Bible. Philosophical knowledge cannot exist because it treats human beings as capable of independent reasoning. For theological reasons, they rejected this understanding. The second group of philosophers claimed that there is no difference between truths contrary to reason and truths above human reason. Either these are areas that human reason cannot understand (as the first group claimed) or these theological views are simply false. These two groups are the Pietists (Kant)and the empiricists (Hume) .

The empiricists promoted natural science as the standard example of good human reasoning. But natural science cannot say anything about philosophy. Thus, philosophy was reduced to two possibilities. Either it was a system for the systematic understanding of the natural sciences or it was a system for expressing our opinions in a rational way. This meant that traditional dilemmas about the nature of free will, existence, and universals were simply treated as nonsense. They didn’t fit into either category. AJ Ayer is an example of this kind of thinking.

Characteristics of philosophical knowledge

  • Curiosity: You need to wonder about the world around you and ask good questions. Too many people are so busy with life that they don’t take the time to be curious.
  • Humility: You must be willing to admit that you don’t know the answer to everything. A person who claims to know the answer to everything is to be dishonest with you and is more of a sophist than a philosopher.
  • The ability to listen: A philosopher is genuinely interested in listening to points and counterpoints.
  • Teaching: This relates to the number 2.
  • Reasoning: probably half of philosophy is the ability to reason through the arguments of others and show that they are unreasonable or fallacious in one way or another.
  • Finally, the philosopher must have a sense of wonder . This ends near where we started. It is not good enough just to be curious, but bored with the pursuit of wisdom; You should be curious because you look at the world around you and it fills you with wonder.

Examples of philosophical knowledge

  • We are all philosophers
  • I only know that I know nothing
  • If we project into the future we are philosophizing
  • Observe human behavior
  • Wondering about the essence of things
  • Question just for the sake of knowing

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