Map types

From ancient times to the representation of a more or less large site, geographically speaking, it has been called a map. These have different complexities that is why there are different types, all of them providing different information.

Mapspolitical mapMap whose representation is of administrative / political divisions.
Physical or topological mapMap with representation of various geographical features.
Geological mapMap that expresses internal elements of the earth.
Mute mapMap completely or partially devoid of information.
Climate mapMap that represents the different types of climates in a place.
Urban mapMap representing elements of urbanity.
Transit mapMap that represents roads, highways and everything related to traffic.
Meteorological mapMap that represents in a simple way phenomena such as precipitation or temperature.

A map is a geographical representation of the earth or a part of it . In this type of design there is a distribution of elements in a given space, but they will depend on what type of map it is. It can be political, physical, climatic, urban, among others.

A map, therefore, is a very varied receptacle of information and for specific purposes there are different types, since, ultimately, not all the information can be put in just any one. Here are the main types of maps. 

political map

In this type of map, physical elements are not represented, but only administrative or political divisions that are generally shown in borders. To this type of map you can add small points with information on the main cities and capitals of the different nations.

Regardless of the scale in which you work, there is always an inside and an outside. Also, just as a solid line marks a safe border or division, dashed lines are often used in these types of maps to indicate discrepancies in terms of borders in that area, which can generally be disputed territories or national waters.

On the political map, the theoretical construct or social convention is more necessary, since to carry out the demarcations of municipalities, mayors, provinces, autonomous regions, countries, continents, etc., there must be a global agreement.

Physical or topological map

The physical or topological map is the cartographic representation of the geographical features of greater relief. Here you can find valleys, rivers, lakes, lagoons, deserts and different types of vegetation. All this is represented by different colors so that the user understands and uses them in the best way.

It is very common to find at the bottom of these maps a kind of table with the explanation of what each tonality means. Obviously, there are different types of physical maps: a perfectly mute one can be presented, where what is abundant is precisely the relief without more; but there are also many physicists with written references of all kinds.

Geological map

This type of map can be similar to the physical or topological one, since natural elements are represented. However, here the emphasis is not so much on the relief or the earth’s surface, but the type of minerals that make up the geography demarcated by the representation.

There is, of course, a certain symbolism for the different minerals and natural formations such as springs, volcanoes, mineral veins, among others. Therefore, the variations of the territory that appear have to do with the distribution of the objects of study and the shape of the tectonic plates. What it is about is to give an image on the surface of everything that is underground.

Mute map

A blank map is a geographic representation absolutely devoid of information. In fact, there are different classes: some refer to a certain administrative-political division; others to none. The latter are precisely the truly mute ones, since in general they simply respect the outermost border of the nation or entity in question.

Silent maps usually have the functionality of being perfect receptacles for any information that the user himself later puts in. They are ideal for the little ones in terms of the location of a city, a region or any type of geographical accident.

Climate map

The climate map is the cartographic representation of the climates of a given political entity. It is very usual in them striking colors that contrast with each other and with a different sharpness, marking that it is precisely something ethereal, that it does not materially settle in the territory like a geographical accident.

Likewise, they usually have a box in the lower area so that the user can associate a color type to a certain climate. Therefore, the information provided is the climatic proportion of a geographic entity, in which areas it develops, which climate is abundant, among other related ideas. Finally, although there are areas of climatic homogeneity, there are also others with some overlap (a place of indistinctness).

Urban map

Urban maps are geographical representations of human constructs: cities, roads, buildings. Natural elements such as rivers or lakes may appear, but generally the above is represented. Its reason for being is more noticeable in those maps of smaller-scale enclosures, such as a city (contrary to what is shown in the image above).

Therefore, what is expressed here is the space occupied by a city, district or neighborhood, all in scale. The symbology is quite simple: a minimalist style often used in the form of polygons and various shades to represent, for example, an old area, a beach area, parks, shopping center, etc.

Transit map

It is a variation of the urban map that represents the different routes and public accesses of the entity treated in the same representation. They exist of varying complexity, since it is not the same to express only highways and national routes, than other roads of less relevance. In the latter, the scale of the map will also be determined, with variations if it is a country, a state, a province, a municipality, etc.

Here you can find routes of buses, trains, subway networks, trams and automobile roads represented with colored lines. Stations for some modes of transport may also appear.

Meteorological map

A meteorological map is a cartographic representation regarding the phenomena of the region. Unlike the climate, here we find simple expressions of the temperature, if it is raining, cloudy, if there is a thunderstorm, etc.

The information created is quite simple, because the idea is for the user to quickly understand the information and not saturate the image with issues that go beyond this type of map.

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