Types of discrimination

Discrimination is a negative behavior of the human being from the moment that it implies treating the discriminated against as inferior, undervaluing and despising him, putting him aside. There are a multitude of types of discrimination . Next we count each one of them.

DefinitionDiscrimination is a social behavior based on the unequal and pejorative drinking of a person or community for religious, ethnic, sexual, political, physical or psychological reasons, among others.
Types of discriminationDiscrimination by age, gender, against women, against men, employment, sexual orientation, gender, disability, laterality, among others.


Age discrimination is one that differentiates and stereotypes based on age. They are a series of beliefs, values ​​and ideas that base discrimination and subordination towards certain age classes. Here we mostly talk about children, adolescents and the elderly, because the adult in some way, from this perspective, would be a complete being.

Therefore, the child is discriminated because he is not yet and the adult because he already was. A frequent type of age discrimination is associating that an older person does not have sexual relations, does not entertain themselves and possibly does not seek employment (which is made difficult by the same companies).

Naturally, there must be means to combat it. Different mechanisms for the incorporation of older adults into society (even if there are voluntary withdrawals) and in the case of children and adolescents, understand them as rational beings and not as individuals in process.

Gender discrimination

Gender discrimination can be defined as a pejorative segregation towards those beings who usually break the male and female binary pair. And it has enormous consequences from the psychic aspect, with implications for work, friendships, love and many more areas. A good example is when a transsexual person does not access certain jobs not because of their knowledge, but because of their gender.

Here we are talking about a set of values, beliefs, ideas and actions that reinforce this desired binary in multiple places and exclude everything that breaks it: let’s think that today the LGBT community has incorporated a multitude of minorities ranging from intersex to sexuality. asexuality (and subclasses can be found as well).

One way to combat this type of discrimination is simply to put aside the person’s gender, finding it a personal decision to respect. And that this does not imply deterioration in all facets of life that a human being has.

Discrimination against women in the workplace

This type of discrimination is historical, since, at least in the West, women have been thought of as the owner of the home and men as the provider worker. It is a proven fact in multiple jobs that a woman, in the same ranks as a man, can receive lower economic rewards.

Nowadays, where it is a fact that women not only work alongside men, but sometimes earn more, it is more than peremptory to fight against this type of discrimination. Obtaining a job must be linked to abilities and skills, having nothing to do with sex.

Discrimination against men

To many it will seem shocking and unrealistic, but sometimes discrimination against women can prevent discrimination against men. In this sense, if we look at the reverse of the question, in many countries and civilizations masculinity must necessarily have certain traits and there are training, jobs, of which man cannot bend.

A good example is that in many countries military service is an obligation for men, associating martial practices with masculinity.

Ethnic discrimination

The concept of race has lost force with the passage of time and the discoveries of the human being (it does not have a biological basis). However, ethnic discrimination continues to exist, since it is understood that one is superior to the others as a set of values, beliefs, religions, culture, lifestyle and sometimes also adding a pseudo-scientific biological aspect (one would speak of genes).

A white and western man, for example, compared to an original Aztec in full conquest of America or an Aztec compared to other civilizations in the pre-Columbian period, since we know that the Aztecs formed an empire to a great extent subjugating other Mesoamerican civilizations.

Disability discrimination

Disability discrimination (although today we speak of different capacities) is related to the contempt and undervaluation of another person as a result of physical, mental, intellectual and sensory deficiencies. Disabled people, in this context, suffer rejection in various institutions, may have problems inserting themselves into society and lack the productivity of an average subject.

Society struggles (and the struggle never ends) to generate various inclusion mechanisms so that this does not happen, incorporating environments as varied as education, work, entertainment, among others. All subject to a correct development of a consistent jurisprudence.

Discrimination by species

Its terminology may sound strange, but it is more normal than we think and many times it comes up in us. Species discrimination refers to the contempt of everything that is not human and is alive. We constantly fight against this speciesism that reduces animals to domesticity, productivity (and food deserves a separate paragraph here) and to simple extermination (many times we do not hesitate to kill a spider or step on an ant, either out of ugliness or because there are many).

All living beings deserve to enjoy the planet and human beings should not be placed on any kind of pedestal.

Laterality discrimination

Perhaps not so normal today, but for a long time people who were left-handed were discriminated against. Let us remember that the left-handed was associated with the evil, the demonic, and even the sibylline, so it is no coincidence that one of the synonyms for the left is “sinister.”

Formerly there was a practice of educators wanting to convert their left-handed students into rights, being quite painful and even traumatic processes for those who suffered it.

Pregnancy discrimination

This type of discrimination occurs from the moment that women are lopsided, rejected and considered less valuable when they are pregnant or have some pathology typical of this process. At present, many times bosses do not agree to hire women because of their state of pregnancy, a reading that not only refers to the time that they would be free for maternity.

Religious discrimination

Religious discrimination refers to the act of differentiating and pejoratively treating any individual who professes another creed. Historically many religions have proclaimed themselves “true”, which has made this human action more normal.

We are talking about people who do not access jobs, places, political ranks and who sometimes even receive the severest penalties (death is the limit point) for simply believing otherwise.

Discrimination based on personality

Personality can be a source of discrimination, especially if it is not very similar to what society wants. Here we speak more than anything about introverted subjects, with not so usual practices and ways of being that are not well regarded. This, of course, marks a shortage of tolerance.

Discrimination for mental disorders

Sometimes considered as mentalism, it is based on a discriminatory oppression of those people who suffer from different psychological disorders or even cognitive deficits. These divergences are sometimes driven by stereotypes.

People are asperger syndrome, learning disabilities, schizophrenic, bipolar; and even individuals with behaviors such as tics or stuttering. Here we only place a few brief examples, because the classification can be extended with other pathologies and psychological realities.

Epistemic discrimination

Epistemic discrimination is based on a differentiation in the reliability of what an agent knows and says with respect to others. But why is it less reliable? Simply because of prejudices, because it is part of a group (in the broad sense) or a school that is considered a priori inferior, less would be, intelligent, capable, etc.

A good example of epistemic discrimination is seen every day from the moment that we blindly trust the word of an adult more than that of a child. We think that the adult is necessarily and always a trained and rational being, traits that a small or small would never possess.

Discrimination against aboriginal women

Here we find a redoubling of the discriminatory act. If many times women suffer discrimination for the mere fact of being one, to that is added a sort of maximized discrimination if they are part of an ethnic group considered inferior in many ways.

Discrimination against aboriginal women translates into invisibility, exploitation and all kinds of plunder. Here we are talking about an explosive cocktail of misogyny, xenophobia and racism (even if it has no scientific basis).

Discrimination based on national origin

Here we are not talking about ethnicities (he may be a Caucasian man in appearance), much less about races, but about discrimination for being born in a country that supports a multitude of negative characteristics (they are often stereotyped). Then certain negative features of the nation would be transferred to all the people who were born in it.

This is a type of discrimination, something very common when people act as tourists in the world or when, for various reasons, they must leave their country of origin to settle in a new one.

Direct discrimination

Direct discrimination is based on pejoratively differentiating another simply because he is not part of my group (or what I consider to be correct in the broad sense). There are many examples of this discrimination that works so quickly, as when I consider that my school work is superior to that of another precisely because it is mine.

Cognitive discrimination

Cognitive discrimination is that made with respect to those who do not belong to a certain group X, on the basis that some morally relevant criterion is not satisfied by those who do not belong to X.

Non-cognitive discrimination

This type of discrimination is closely related to direct discrimination, because it is simply underestimating the other and considering them inferior for the mere fact of being someone else (which can sometimes also be maximized by wishing them harm). There is no reflection, there are no developed ideas, but an impulse, a feeling.

Hierarchical discrimination

It is the discrimination of those people who do not belong to X, which implies that their interests are considered inferior, on a hierarchical scale. You can even take them into account, but they will never have the same value as your own, essentially superior.

Reflective discrimination

Reflective discrimination is not, as one might suppose, a discrimination that thinks, but one that is carried out in a mirror. We give an example: a person is part of a group that discriminates, is discriminated against in it and in turn maintains that discrimination in their attitudes.

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