State Types

States come in a variety of forms that vary depending on who has power, how leadership positions are obtained, and how authority is maintained . The United States, for example, is a democratic presidential republic: a democratic government headed by an elected executive branch, the president. It originally won its independence from Great Britain, which was a monarchy, in which power was concentrated in an individual king. Other forms of government include the oligarchy and dictatorship or totalitarianism. One way to classify these governments is to look at how leaders gain power. Under this system, governments fall into general categories of authoritarianism, oligarchy, and democracy .

Types of states

Definition

AuthoritarianThe supreme power is lodged absolutely or nominally in an individual, who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication. The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch.
OligarchyPower effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family, the military, or religious hegemony.
DemocracyThe right to rule is in the hands of the majority of the citizens of a country or state. The two principles of a democracy are that all citizens have equal access to power and that all citizens enjoy universally recognized freedoms.
AnarchyRefers to the absence of government, a condition in which a nation or state operates without a central governing body
AristocracyIt refers to a form of government in which wealthy nobles are given power over those of lower socioeconomic strata. Leadership positions are reserved for those of an elite ruling class, a status that is typically hereditary.
BureaucracyIt refers to a form of government in which unelected government officials carry out public responsibilities as dictated by administrative policy-making groups.
CapitalismIt refers to a form of economy in which production is driven by private property. Capitalism promotes the idea of ​​open competition and extends from the belief that a free market economy, one with limited regulatory control, is the most efficient form of economic organization.
ColonialismIt is a form of government in which a nation will seek to extend its sovereignty over other territories. In practical terms, it implies the expansion of the dominion of a nation beyond its borders.
CommunismIn its purest form, communism refers to the idea of ​​common public ownership of the economy, including infrastructure, public services, and the means of production.
FederalismIt is a form of government that combines and divides powers between a centralized federal authority and a series of regional and local authorities.
FeudalismIt is a social structure that revolves around land ownership, nobility, and military obligation. Although not a formal type of government, feudalism refers to a way of life in which sharp hierarchical divisions separate the noble classes, the clergy, and the peasantry.
CleptocracyIt is a form of government in which the ruling party has come to power, retained power, or both, through corruption and theft.
MeritocracyIt refers to a system in which authority rests with those who have demonstrated the merits that are considered relevant to the government or public administration.
Military dictatorshipIt is a nation governed with absolute power, in the absence of a democratic process, and typically under the thumb of a single authority figure. In a military dictatorship, this authority usually heads the nation’s armed forces.
PlutocraciaIt refers to a system of government in which power is determined as a direct function of wealth.
RepublicanismIt refers to a system in which power rests with the citizens.
SocialismIt refers to a form of government in which the people own the main means of production. Some followers see socialism as a reference to a strict policy of shared ownership and equitable distribution of resources, while others believe that free market capitalism can coexist with socialist forms of public administration.
TribalismIt refers to a form of government in which there is an absence of central authority and where, instead, various regional tribes claim different territories, resources, or dominions.

Types of states

Authoritarian states

Authoritarian governments differ in who has power and how much control they assume over those who rule, but they are all marked by the fact that the empowered are unelected individuals . A well-known example of this type of government is the monarchy.

A monarchy is a form of government in which the supreme power is lodged absolutely or nominally with an individual , who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication. The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. These have unlimited political power, while many constitutional monarchies, such as the UK and Thailand, have monarchs with limited political power. Hereditary government is often a common feature, but elective monarchies are also considered (eg, the Pope) and some states have hereditary rulers , but are considered republics (eg, the Dutch Republic). Currently, 44 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state.

Totalitarianism (or totalitarian government) is a political system that strives to regulate almost all aspects of public and private life. Totalitarian regimes or movements are held in political power by an all-encompassing official ideology and propaganda spread through the state-controlled media. They have a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control of the economy, regulation and restriction of freedom. They do not accept discussion and criticism, and are inclined towards the use of mass surveillance and generalized use of state terrorism.

Oligarchic states

An oligarchy is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family, the military, or religious hegemony. An oligarchy is different from a true democracy because very few people have the opportunity to change things. This does not have to be hereditary or monarchical. An oligarchy does not have a clear ruler, but rather several powerful people who rule. A common example is that of theocracy.

Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler of the state, or in a broader sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who consider themselves divinely guided. . The theocratic governments enact laws teonómicas. These are distinguished from other secular forms of government that have a state religion, or are simply influenced by theological or moral concepts, and monarchies maintained “by the Grace of God.”

Democratic states

Democracy is a form of government in which the right to govern is in the hands of the majority of the citizens of a country or state . The two principles of a democracy are that all citizens have equal access to power and that all citizens enjoy universally recognized freedoms. There are several varieties of democracy, some of which provide better representation and more freedoms to their citizens than others. However, if a democracy is not carefully legislated with balances, such as the separation of powers, to avoid an unequal distribution of political power, then one branch of the government system could accumulate power and become detrimental to democracy itself. Political freedom, freedom of speech and freedom of the press They are essential for citizens to be informed and to vote for their personal interests.

Other types of states

Anarchy

Anarchism refers to the absence of government , a condition in which a nation or state operates without a central governing body. This denotes an absence of public services, a lack of regulatory control, limited diplomatic relations with other nation-states and, in most cases, a society divided into different locally governed settlements (or fiefdoms).

Aristocracy

Aristocracy refers to a form of government in which wealthy nobles are given power over those from lower socioeconomic strata . Leadership positions are reserved for those of an elite ruling class, a status that is typically hereditary. In this system, the privileged ruling class is seen as possessing the education, upbringing, and genetic traits necessary to rule. The aristocracy promotes an inherent class system that connects wealth and ethnicity with the ability and right to rule.

Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to a form of government in which unelected government officials carry out public responsibilities as dictated by administrative policy-making groups. In a bureaucracy, rules, regulations, procedures, and outcomes are formulated to maintain order, achieve efficiency, and prevent favoritism within the system. Bureaucracies rarely serve as forms of government on their own, but are often used as mechanisms to sustain and strengthen general forms of government. Indeed, bureaucratic simplification of policy implementation can take place under the rule of a dictator or a democracy.

Capitalism

Capitalism refers to a form of economy in which production is driven by private property . Capitalism promotes the idea of ​​open competition and extends from the belief that a free market economy, one with limited regulatory control, is the most efficient form of economic organization. Its defenders argue that capitalism promotes economic growth, better living standards, higher productivity, and greater prosperity, while critics argue that capitalism inherently promotes inequality, exploitation of the working class, and unsustainable use of resources and the earth.

Colonialism

Colonialism is a form of government in which a nation will seek to extend its sovereignty over other territories . In practical terms, it implies the expansion of a nation’s dominance beyond its borders. This often involves the occupation of indigenous populations and the exploitation of resources for the benefit of the ruling nation. The colonizer will also often impose his own economy, culture, religious order, and form of government on an occupied people to strengthen his own authority.

Communism

In its purest form, communism refers to the idea of common public ownership of the economy, including infrastructure, public services, and the means of production.. Communism, idealized by the thinkers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, denotes an absence of class divisions, which inherently requires the subversion of the ruling class by the working class. As such, communism often incorporates the idea of ​​revolutionary action against an unequal government. Communism is often positioned as a counterpoint to the economic stratification underlying capitalism. This resistance to stratification sometimes also takes the form of a single state authority, one in which political opposition or dissent may be restricted. This may manifest itself in some communist states as a more authoritarian form of government, as typified by the type of Soviet communism that swept across the world in the mid-20th century.

Federalism

Federalism is a form of government that combines and divides powers between a centralized federal authority and a series of regional and local authorities . This is typically a system in which a set of states, territories or provinces are autonomous and subject to the authority of a broad and unifying government structure. This is considered a balanced approach that provides roughly equal authority status to two different levels of government.

Feudalism

Feudalism is a social structure that revolves around land ownership, nobility, and military obligation . Although not a formal type of government, feudalism refers to a way of life in which sharp hierarchical divisions separate the noble classes, the clergy, and the peasantry. The opportunities for movement between these hierarchies are largely impossible. In this system, peasants used to provide work and military service in exchange for occupation of the land and protection from outside forces under the authority of a noble lord. In turn, the lordships or fiefdoms, often faced each other politically, economically and militarily. Feudalism was an agrarian and highly decentralized way of life which was supplanted when European monarchies created the infrastructure to impose a central government over their various domains.

Cleptocracy

Kleptocracy is a form of government in which the ruling party has come to power, retained power, or both, through corruption and theft . This is not a form of government that a ruling class can apply itself, but a pejorative term used to describe a group whose power is based on a basis of embezzlement, embezzlement, and transfer of large amounts of wealth from the public. to the private. These private interests will normally overlap with the ruling party’s own economic interests.

Meritocracy

Meritocracy refers to a system in which authority rests with those who have demonstrated the merits that are considered relevant to the government or public administration . These merits are often conferred through academic credentials and tests and are intended to create an order in which talents, abilities, and intellect determine who should fill leadership and financial management positions. The result is a social hierarchy based on achievement.

Military dictatorship

A dictatorship is a nation governed with absolute power, in the absence of a democratic process, and typically under the thumb of a single authority figure . In a military dictatorship, this authority usually heads the nation’s armed forces . A military dictatorship often comes to power by subverting the existing seat of government, sometimes through claims of corruption, weakness, or ineffectiveness, and subsequently using the military to establish its own brand of law and order. Military dictatorships will often prioritize law and order over due process, civil liberties, or political liberties. Dissent or political opposition can be dangerous or even deadly for those living under a military dictatorship.

Plutocracia

Plutocracy refers to a system of government in which power is determined as a direct function of wealth . Plutocracy reflects the economic hierarchy of aristocratic systems, but lacks the philosophical imperatives used to justify the latter. Whereas aristocratic forms of governance justified economic hierarchy by presuming an equivalence between wealth, inheritance, and qualification to lead, plutocracy refers in simpler terms to the rise of the rich to positions of power.

Republicanism

Republicanism, the form of government, not to be confused with the specific Republican political party of American politics, refers to a system in which power rests with the citizenry . In technical definition, a republic is a nation in which the people have popular sovereignty through electoral and legislative processes, as well as through participation in public and civic life. In its earliest form, the republic was perceived as a counterweight to the monarchy, an approach that fused monarchy and aristocracy with some trappings of democracy.

Socialism

Socialism refers to a form of government in which the people own the main means of production . A counterpoint to the competitive nature and unequal leanings of capitalism, socialism has existed in many forms and to widely varying degrees of rigor throughout history and around the world. From small communal societies to state governments that provide comprehensive public services like universal health care, the concept of socialism permeates governments around the world. In contrast to the less compromised and often more authoritarian nature of communism, socialism tends to be a malleable concept. Some followers see socialism as a reference to astrict policy of shared ownership and equitable distribution of resources , while others believe that free market capitalism can coexist with socialist forms of public administration. That is, the social security system of the declaratively capitalist United States is inherently socialist in nature.

Tribalism

Tribalism refers to a form of government in which there is an absence of central authority and where, instead, various regional tribes claim different territories, resources, or dominions.. In this system, trade and war can occur between different tribes without the participation or supervision of a unifying structure. This was a particularly common way of life in the pre-modern world, where different families and clans would establish a set of common rules and rituals specific to their community. While many tribes have forms of internal leadership, from councils and chiefdoms to warlords and patriarchs, tribes are also distinguished by having relatively limited role differentiation or internal role stratification. In some respects, this can make the internal customs of some tribes particularly egalitarian. That said, tribalism as a way of life has been threatened and in many parts of the world extinguished by modernity,

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