Properties of matter and states of matter

Matter is known as everything that has a mass, that occupies a place in space and that is converted into energy. When it comes to properties of matter, they refer to those chemical and physical characteristics that compose and describe it. In addition, matter also has different states.

Next we will know in detail each one of them.

Matter
DefinitionEverything that occupies an observable place in space and that has a certain amount of associated energy.
Properties-General or extrinsic properties : are the characteristics that all matter shares, without differences in form, composition, elements that compose it or presentation.

-Specific or intrinsic properties: these are the characteristics that differentiate substances.

stateThey are the different phases of aggregation that the same can be found, whether you are pure substances or mixtures. The states of matter can be: solid, liquid, gaseous and plasmatic

What is matter?

The matter is anything that occupies a place in space observable and has certain amount of associated energy. It is what the universe is made of and that can also be measured in some way.

Matter can be defined as everything that has mass, occupies a place, lasts in time and can also be measurable with a specific measuring instrument.

Matter has properties and has states. With respect to its properties, they can be divided into general properties that are those that all bodies have in common and do not allow differences one substance from another, and the specific properties that are those intrinsic to matter that do allow differentiation to one body of another.

With regard to the states of matter, they are the different phases of aggregation that it can be found, whether you are pure substances or mixtures. The states of matter can be: solid, liquid, gaseous and plasmatic.

Properties of matter

The properties of matter can differ in general or specific. When we refer to the general properties we are talking about the physical qualities that it has.

– General or extrinsic properties: these are the characteristics that all matter shares, without differences in form, composition, elements that compose it or presentation. These properties do not allow to differentiate one substance from the other. Within these properties we can find:

  • Extension : it is the space or volume that it occupies within a certain body.
  • Mass: is the amount of matter that a body has.
  • nertia: it is the ability to maintain its state of rest or movement without the intervention of a force.
  • Porosity : it is the space that exists between the particles of a body.
  • Divisibility: refers to the ability of matter to subdivide into smaller parts.
  • Weight: is the force exerted by gravity on a material body.

– Specific or intrinsic properties: these are the characteristics that differentiate substances. They can be physical properties, that is, those that matter has without changing its nature, and chemical properties that are the characteristics in which there is a change in the composition of the matter, such as oxidation.

  • Physical properties : they define the form and state in which we can measure matter. They are:

-Density: is the amount of mass per unit of volume. Each material has its own density.

-Melting point: is the temperature at which the substance changes from the solid state to the liquid state.

-Electrical conductivity : is the ability of a material to conduct electric current through its structure. There are certain materials that are good conductors, such as metals, and others that are insulators, such as plastic, glass, and wood.

-Thermal conductivity : is the degree or extent to which a material can conduct heat.

-Boiling point: is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equates to the pressure that surrounds the liquid, causing the liquid to transform into gas.

  • Chemical properties: these properties are what define the reactivity of matter, that is, when one matter is converted into another through a chemical reaction. The chemical properties are:

-Reactivity : is the ability of a substance to react in the presence of another substance.

-Combustibility : is the ability of a substance to burn. In other words, cause an oxidation reaction, even generating explosions.

-Acidity: is the characteristic that a substance has to behave like an acid.

– Alkalinity: it is the ability of a substance to counteract the effect of an acid, this means to neutralize it.

States of the material

The different phases of aggregation in which a matter can be found are known as states of matter. This state of aggregation will depend on the type and intensity of the binding forces that exist between its particles. In addition, other factors that influence the states of matter are temperature and pressure.

The states of matter are: solid, liquid, gaseous and less frequently the plasma state. Each of these states has different characteristics or physical properties.

Solid state

It is the state of matter where its particles are very close together and united by an attractive force of great magnitude. It is for this reason that solids have a well-defined shape, high density and resistance to fragmentation.

The solids have a low or almost no fluidity, and when fragmenting them smaller solids are obtained. Examples of solids: minerals, metals, stone, bones, wood.

Liquid state

The liquid state is characterized by having particles that are united by an attractive force but weaker than that of solids. It is for this reason that liquids do not have a definite and stable shape nor do they have resistance. They have great fluidity, in fact they take on the shape of the container that contains them. Examples of liquids: water, mercury, blood.

Gaseous state

The gaseous state is one in which the particles are in a state of dispersion and distance in such a way that they can hardly be kept together. Their attractive force is very weak and they are in a disorderly state. They occupy a larger volume than solids and liquids, since a gas tends to expand until it occupies the entire space in which it is found. Examples of gases: air, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium.

Plasma state

This state is rare, and it is one in which matter can be understood as an ionized gas, this means that it is composed of atoms to which electrons have been added or subtracted. Plasma is a great transmitter of electricity.

Plasma has its own characteristics, which do not agree with those of the other states of matter, that is why it is called a fourth state.

Plasma can be hot or cold. Cold is one in which the temperature of electrons is higher than that of heavy particles. On the other hand, hot plasma is one in which ionized atoms acquire a high temperature when they collide continuously and this generates light and heat. Examples of plasma: the sun, electronic screens, the interior of fluorescent tubes.

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