Prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell

The cell (from the Latin “little cell”, “little chamber”) is the fundamental unit of all living organisms (with the exception of viruses), the smallest structure that is classified as living. There is a diversity of cells, among them we can find eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

The main difference between these two cells lies in the fact that prokaryotic cells have free genetic material in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotic cells the genetic material is secreted within a nucleus surrounded by a membrane.

 Eukaryotic cells
 Prokaryotic cells
 Organisms Plants, fungi, animals Bacteria
 Cellular wall Present only in plants and fungi Here I’m
 Ribosomes gifts Here I’m
 Cytoplasmic ribosome dimensions 80 S 70 S
 Vacuolas gifts Rare
 Organelles surrounded by membrane gifts absent
 Nuclear membrane gifts absent
 ChromosomesPresent (more than one) Present (only one)
 Dimensions (in μm = 10−6 m) Between 10 to 100 Between 1 to 10

What is a eukaryotic cell:

Eukaryotic cells are those that have a differentiated nucleus in which the genetic material (DNA) and the cell are found. There are two types of eukaryotic cells, plant cells and animal cells.

Eukaryotic cell structure

The eukaryotes are living organisms formed by cells that are more advanced than prokaryotic cells and have a core encased by a membrane nuclear.A though different in shape and size, all eukaryotic cellsThey are basically made up of the same parts: the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, in which we find some organelles that perform different vital functions, and the nucleus. The most obvious organelles are the mitochondria (which produce energy), the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (which assembles lipids), and the wrinkled (which assembles proteins). There are also other important elements such as the Golgi apparatus, which prepares waste substances, and lysosomes, reservoirs of enzymes with various metabolic functions. The genetic material of the cell is confined to the nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane.

Characteristics of the eukaryotic cell

  • The size of eukaryotic cells is varied. From 10 µm that measure lymphocytes to 100 µm that measure fat cells.
  • They have varied shapes (pyramidal, cubic, spherical, starry, flat, etc.).
  • They have different functions.
  • Organelles are found in these cells.

Classification of eukaryotic cells

There are two groups of eukaryotic cells:

  • Animal cell: Example: nerve cells or neurons, the sperm or the ovules of the reproductive system.
  • Plant cell: Contains chloroplasts that are structures that are responsible for photosynthesis d ela.

What is a prokaryotic cell:

Prokaryotic cells are simple cells, they do not have a nucleus and they have genetic material distributed in the cytoplasm.

Prokaryotic cell structure

The prokaryotes (from the Greek protos = first and karion = core, which is “primitive core ‘) are unicellular organisms with a primitive cell structure and functioning vital simplified compared to other living beings. The domains characterized by prokaryotic cells are: Bacteria (eubacteria) and Archea (archaebacteria).
The prokaryotic cells differ from other organisms due to many features, the most important of which relates to the genetic material , organized genes arranged in a ring filament and not enclosed by a nuclear membrane. What’s more,many of the structures (chloroplasts, mitochondria, advanced flagella) found in more advanced cells are missing . The fundamental structures of bacterial cells are: wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material, mesosomes. In some prokaryotic organisms, other constituents are present, such as capsules and flagella.
The wall, possessed by all bacteria except for the genus Mycoplasma, externally defines the prokaryotic cell and maintains its integrity . The fundamental component of the wall is a polymer, peptidoglycan, which is made up of a polysaccharide backbone containing 2 sugars.
Outside the thin murein layer of Gram’s wall, there is a membrane. This outer membrane forms a rigid structure around the cell and acts as a resistant barrier to large molecules and hydrophobic molecules. The cytoplasmic membrane is formed by a 5-10 nm phospholipid double layer, in which some protein structures are immersed.

Characteristics of prokaryotic cells

  • Posseen varied shapes (spherical, cylindrical or curved)
  • Its size varies between 1 to 10 µm.
  • It has a capsule (some bacteria have them)
  • It has a cell wall that surrounds the membrane

Classification of prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells are classified into:

  • Archaea: they are found in marine or terrestrial environments, they can survive under extreme environmental conditions.
  • Bacteria: an example is Helicobacter pylori bacteria (which cause gastric ulcers)

What are viruses?

Viruses are neither eukaryotic nor prokaryotic , but are subcellular particles, that is, they lack a cellular structure , capable of multiplying only within a host cell infected by them. Depending on the organisms they infect, they can divide into real viruses , which can infect eukaryotic cells, and in bacteriophage or phage viruses, which infect prokaryotic bacterial cells.

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