Organic and inorganic compounds

The main difference between the two classes of substances is that organic compounds always contain the element carbon, while most inorganic compounds lack this element. Because there are inorganic compounds that contain carbon, the presence of carbon is not enough to classify a compound as organic. With very few exceptions, organic compounds contain carbon atoms attached to hydrogen atoms to form CH bonds. Many organic compounds also contain oxygen atoms.

Organic compounds
Inorganic compounds
DefinitionOrganic compounds are molecules associated with living organismsInorganic compounds are compounds that do not contain carbon and are not derived from living matter.
CompositionOrganic compounds always contain carbon (and very often hydrogen, forming Carbon-Hydrogen bonds)Inorganic compounds mostly do not contain carbon (although there are cases where it can)
StabilityOrganic compounds destabilize and decompose very easily.Inorganic compounds are more stable and, unless powerful chemical reactions come into play, they do not show great modifications
SolubilityDissolution is very complicatedThey are easily soluble
Electrical conductionThey tend to be insulating and not conductive of electricityThey conduct electricity with great ease
ExamplesLeucine, sphingolipids, palmitic acid, sucrose, glycogen, DNA, glutathione, diosgenin, caffeine, morphine, etc.Copper sulfate, lead acetate, sodium chloride, platinum, etc.

Definition of organic compounds

Organic compounds are molecules associated with living organisms. These include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, and hydrocarbon fuels. Organic compounds are broadly classified as natural and synthetic compounds. Furthermore, they are subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms, such as organometallic compounds (carbon atoms attached to metals) and organophosphates (carbon atoms attached to phosphorus). They are also classified as small molecules or large macromolecules (polymers) based on their size. Natural organic compounds are derived from plants and animals and include primary metabolites such as sugars and carbohydrates, fats and lipids, peptides and proteins, nucleic acids, and a whole range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and vitamins. Synthetic compounds are chemically synthesized by reaction of compounds. Most polymers (a category that includes all plastics and rubbers) are organic, synthetic, or semi-synthetic compounds. In general, organic compounds possess carbon-carbon bonds, carbon-hydrogen bonds, as well as covalent bonds between carbon and oxygen, and nitrogen.

Examples of some organic compounds : leucine, sphingolipids, palmitic acid, sucrose, glycogen, DNA, glutathione, diosgenin, caffeine, morphine, etc.

Definition of inorganic compounds

Inorganic compounds are compounds that do not contain carbon and are not derived from living matter.. They include substances made from individual elements, salts, metals, and any other compound that does not contain hydrogen bonded carbon. In general, inorganic compounds are derived from geological systems, such as sediments and minerals. Inorganic compounds are not covalently bound and exhibit ionic characters. Due to ionic bonding, which is typically found in inorganic compounds, they hold together very rigidly and possess extremely high melting and boiling points. Inorganic compounds can conduct electricity as they contain metals (alkali, alkali, transition, etc.). Other characteristic features of inorganic compounds are that they are highly colored and have the ability to form crystals.

Examples of some inorganic compounds : copper sulfate, lead acetate, sodium chloride, platinum, etc.

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