ADN y ARN

The DNA and RNA are essential acids for stocks of organisms. The DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid and the RNA is ribonucleic acid .

Both have the fundamental structure that are nucleotides, composed of a five-carbon sugar or pentose, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base. The nucleotides connected to each other form polynucleotide chains .

Talking about how some scientific terms differ is very important. In fact, we’ve already talked about other differences that exist, while today we want to better investigate what the differences are between DNA and RNA.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are nucleic acids made up of subunits known as nucleotides, each of which is made up of:

  • A phosphate group
  • A sugar with 5 carbon atoms
  • A nitrogenous base.

There are 5 nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil . The first two are known as purines because they are derived from purine (a nitrogenous heterocyclic compound made from a pentaatomic ring fused with an atomic hexahomo ring), while the other 3 are called pyrimidines because they originate from pyrimidine (a compound nitrogenous heterocyclic). of a hexaatomic ring).

In addition, the phosphate group of each nucleotide is attached to the sugar of the next nucleotide with a covalent bond that forms a long chain.

DNA and RNA: here are the differences

ADN
ARN
 Molecule typeDeoxirribonucleic acidAcido ribonucleico
 Chain structureDouble chainSimple chain
 FunctionDepository of genetic informationParticipates in the synthesis of proteins. Interpret the genetic code of DNA
 Sugar presentDeoxyriboseribose
 LocationNucleus of all cellsNucleus and cytoplasm
 TypesNuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNATransfer RNA, Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA, and Non-coding RNA
 SizeMacromoléculaMacromolécula

But how are DNA and RNA different ? Well, here are the differences that exist between these two nucleic acids:

  • DNA is made up of two strands coiled with a double helix, while RNA is made up of a single strand.
  • The sugar present in DNA is deoxyribose, while in RNA there is ribose.
  • DNA is the repository of genetic information, while RNA participates in protein synthesis and the transmission of information contained in DNA.
  • Finally, DNA is contained in the nucleus of all cells, while RNA is present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

What is DNA:

The DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a basic acid for the life of organisms. Its function is to store and transfer genetic information. Its nitrogenous bases are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine.

Types of DNA: There are two types of deoxyribunucleic acid.

  • ADN nuclear
  • Mitochondrial DNA

What is RNA:

RNA or ribonucleic acid is another of the fundamental acids and its function is to interpret the genetic code of DNA to drive protein synthesis. RNA has a single chain and its nitrogenous bases are adenine-uracil, cytosine-guanine.

Types of RNA: There are 4 types of ribonucleic acid

  • Messenger RNA
  • Transfer RNA
  • ARN ribosomal
  • Noncoding RNA

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