Criminology and criminology

Often the terms are often confused criminology and criminalistics as it is considered that both disciplines study the same, but keep in mind they are two different terms.

Although criminology and criminology usually have several points in common, they are two different disciplines and each one has its object of analysis and study.

We will detail both concepts below.

CriminologyForensics
What is it?Discipline that deals with the study of criminal behavior.Discipline that deals with analyzing and determining the form of the crime and who committed it.
PurposeProvide solutions and prevention to man’s antisocial behavior.Provide evidence of the crime through the use of scientific techniques.
Type of applicationTheoretical applicationPractical application
Sciences on which it is basedIt is related to sciences such as psychology, sociology and philosophy.It is related to sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology
Relationship to crimeIt is applied for a more generalized study of crime.It is applied to the study of each crime in particular.
Relationship with criminal lawIt fulfills a more preventive function, trying to analyze the behavior of the offender.By clarifying the criminal act, it serves to determine the truth and establish the penalties for the criminal.

What is criminology?

It is known as criminology science that studied the individual who has committed a crime. The reasons , the causes for which he committed it and the explanation of this antisocial behavior are analyzed .

It is an interdisciplinary science, that is, it involves other sciences such as anthropology, psychology, biology and sociology.

The study objective of criminology focuses on four aspects:

  • The crime
  • The offender
  • The victim
  • The social control of wrong behavior

At present, this science has been established as a branch of criminal law, which aims to analyze the offender in order to establish different mechanisms of prevention and action against a crime.

The criminology is closely related to the work of forensic psychology since, from the findings and reports that this latest installment judges and specialists of different cases, criminology may establish ties and mechanisms crime.

Who perform this task are the cri minólogos , and are responsible for finding and analyzing the answers to what actually happens in the streets, prisons, courts and police stations. In order to carry out their work, they are based on knowledge from different disciplines such as: medicine, psychology, sociology, physics, chemistry and in some cases even mathematics. They are directly related and supported with criminal law and other forensic sciences.

In addition to this, they also focus their study on the analysis of the socio-cultural, economic and global roots of crime. They analyze crime rates, the measurement of criminal activity and what the impact is on criminals and on the whole of society.

Criminologists collect part of their information through the analysis of data sets, statistical analysis and ethnographic studies on different topics such as drug use and murder rates, among others. This science tries to analyze and explain the different crimes within a social context and their variations according to different societies and cultures.

Within criminology we can find three theories that try to explain the reasons for the actions of criminals or criminals:

  • Classical Theory : According to this theory of criminology, the actions of criminals are related to the fact that they believe that the benefits obtained from crime are greater than the possible costs. Those who support this theory consider that in order to reduce crime rates, higher penalties and punishments must be granted to criminals.
  • Positive theory : This theory tries to explain that crime is affected by different factors, both internal and external. They relate criminal behavior to a series of biological and social factors. They believe that crime could be reduced if greater educational and employment opportunities were presented to people who are socio-economically disadvantaged.
  • Individual trait : Those who support this theory consider that the differences between criminals and non-criminals are biological and psychological issues. This theory recommends that to lower crime rates, it is necessary to avoid interaction between people who have the same psychological and biological characteristics.

What is criminology?

The Forensic science is the discipline that deals with analyzing and determining that forms one was committed crime and who committed it. It focuses on the criminal act to determine who and how it was carried out.

It is a more practical than theoretical process, which implies that criminology professionals focus more on evidence and significant material that helps determine a crime.

Criminalistics is a discipline of criminal law, with which, through a set of procedures, techniques and scientific knowledge, the causes and explanations of a crime are analyzed and determined, who were its authors and how was the participation of each of them . Through this discipline, the events that occurred are recreated and what happened in the crime is scientifically demonstrated.

In order to recreate the events that occurred, different activities and meticulous procedures are carried out, using instruments or weapons used in the crime and always basing their analysis on scientific knowledge and techniques. These criminalistic techniques are verifiable, which gives a large percentage of certainty that what has been shown is what has happened, that is, the reality of the facts is proven by means of scientific knowledge.

Criminalistics has a set of basic and fundamental principles to be able to determine the events that occurred, they are:

  • Preservation of the crime scene
  • Thorough analysis of the place of the event
  • Survey of all the evidence found, which are sent to laboratories for analysis.
  • Give great importance to the chain of custody of the evidence and evidence found.

Criminology and criminology: differences

Within the main differences of these disciplines we can determine that criminology deals with the study of the criminal phenomenon, that is, to be able to find the explanations and the reason for the fact that occurred. Instead criminology focuses its study on demonstrating how a crime was committed and who or who the perpetrators were.

Another difference that we can determine is in the science on which each one is based. Criminalistics is supported by sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology. Instead criminology is based on sciences such as psychology, sociology and philosophy.

Criminology has a more theoretical aspect, unlike criminology which is more based on practice.

With regard to the relationship with the law, the application of both in criminal law differs. The criminalistics to clarify the criminal act serves to determine the truth and establish the penalties for the criminal. For its part, criminology fulfills a more preventive function, since it is generally applied before the crime occurs, trying to analyze the behavior of the offender.

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