Branches of geography

The geography is the science that deals with the study and description of the planet Earth . It is a broad science that is interested in landscapes, territories, places, regions, populations and the ways in which these elements are interrelated.

Geography is one of the most widely applied sciences in the different development fields of the world. It has different branches or disciplines that we will explain below.

Human geographyPhysical geographyMathematical GeographyAstronomical Geography
Object of studyHuman beings, their communities, their cultures, economies and relationships with the environment on a social, political and economic level.Natural processes and factors that are generated in the hydrosphere, in the atmosphere or in the geosphere.Surface of the planet and the relationship with the universe, studying its mathematical representation.Behavior of planet Earth as a star and its relationship with other celestial bodies.
Specialties-Anthropology
-Demography
-Etnography
-Geopolitics
-Sociology
-Geomorphology
-Geomorphogenesis
-Geology
-Pedology
-Capelology
-Hydrology
-Crenology
-Oceanography
-Potamology
-Geogeny
-Petrology
-Lithology
-Edaphology
-Limnology
-Glaciology
-Climatology
-Aerology
-Cartografía
-Chronology
-Geodesia
-Topografía
-Astronomy
-Cosmology
-Cosmonautics
-Actinology
-Astrophysics

The geography is the science that deals with the description and graphical representation of the planet Earth . Its name derives from the Greek “gea” which means earth and from “graphos” which means writing.

It is one of the oldest social sciences and it was born in Ancient Greece with the work of Eratosthenes and the historian Herodotus, who became involved and interested in the study of the different regions of the Earth’s surface and of the populations that in she inhabited.

Why is geography important?

As we detailed, geography is one of the sciences that has the greatest application in the different development changes that exist in the world. It is used to understand the dynamics of the current world and the conflicts between humans and planet Earth.

Within its great field of knowledge, tools and knowledge that other social sciences do not have are incorporated, which is why it is considered that it has a close contact with the exact sciences.

Branches of geography

Within this science we can find a large number of branches , but geography is roughly divided into the following disciplines:

Human geography

This branch deals with the study of human beings and their communities, their cultures, economies and relationships with the environment on a social, political and economic level. This group includes the geography of the population, rural geography, social geography, historical geography, urban geography, economic geography, political geography, cultural geography, among others.

Human geography can be divided into:

  • Anthropology : deals with the study of the human being, the anatomy and functioning of his body and also his cultural and social behavior.
  • Demography: it is the branch that is in charge of studying the grouping in populations of human beings within a certain region in conjunction with its structure, the dimension it occupies, the evolution and the general characteristics.
  • Ethnography : ethnography is the branch that studies the culture and behavior of human beings, their language, their traditions and customs, which define their identity and lifestyle.
  • Geopolitics : geopolitics is responsible for studying the birth of a State, its growth, its evolution and its dynamics.
  • Sociology : it is the branch that analyzes human society, its structure, its functioning and the different phenomena that are generated as a result of their interaction.

Physical geography

This branch of geography is responsible for the study of natural processes and factors that are generated in the physical environment, both in the hydrosphere, in the atmosphere or in the geosphere. Each of these physical phenomena gives rise to a branch or specialty dedicated to its study.

Within this branch we can find:

  • Geomorphology: it is the branch that studies the forms of the earth’s surface, such as mountains, valleys and plains.
  • Geomorphogenesis:  be responsible for the study of internal and external processes that generate the different forms found on the earth’s surface.
  • Geology : Geology studies the composition and structure of the earth, as well as its evolution.
  • Pedology:  pedology is the branch that studies soil formation and its characteristics.
  • Speleology: it  is in charge of studying the cavities, caves and underground caverns.
  • Hydrology: hydrology is the branch that studies both surface and underground water from the different continents, its properties, its distribution, its movements and its use.
  • Crenology: it  is the branch that studies medicinal waters, what are their mineral properties, their composition, their formation and temperature.
  • Oceanography : it is the branch that is responsible for the study of the oceans and seas, the phenomena that occur in them, the marine fauna and flora.
  • Potamology : potamology is the branch that studies river hydrology.
  • Geogeny: is responsible for the study of the origin and formation of our planet.
  • Petrology: it  is the branch that studies rocks, their origin and composition.
  • Lithology:  lithology is responsible for the study of the structure and arrangement of rocks, especially sedimentary ones.
  • Edaphology : this discipline is the one that studies and analyzes the soil, its nature, its properties and its relationship with the environment, from a physical, chemical and biological point of view.
  • Limnology: Limnology is responsible for studying the aquatic ecosystems of the continents, such as lakes, lagoons, rivers and ponds.
  • Glaciology:  this branch studies the different forms that water acquires in solid state, glaciers, snow and hail, among others.
  • Climatology:  climatology is in charge of studying the different types of existing climate, their distribution and its variations over time.
  • Aerology: it is the branch that studies the upper layers of the atmosphere, condensation, radiation and thermodynamic state.

Mathematical geography

It is the branch of geography that studies the surface of planet Earth and its relationship with the universe , through mathematical processes, dimensions, magnitudes, shapes and characteristics.

Within mathematical geography we find:

  • Cartography : is the branch that studies the different dimensions of the earth and reflects them on maps and geographic plans and globes.
  • Chronology : Chronology analyzes the succession of time and determines the order of dates and historical events.
  • Geodesy : geodesy is responsible for studying the shape of the planet earth, its gravity field and its different variations over time.
  • Topography : topography studies the details of the earth’s surface and the characteristics of its relief.

Astronomical geography

It is the branch of geography that studies the behavior of planet Earth as a star and its way of relating to other celestial bodies.

Within it we can find the following specialties:

  • Astronomy: it is the branch that studies the stars of the universe such as planets, satellites, comets, stars and meteorites, their movements and the phenomena that are related to them.
  • Cosmology : Cosmology deals with studying the laws of the universe in its entirety, history, origin, structure and evolution.
  • Cosmonautics : it is the branch that analyzes space navigation outside the atmosphere.
  • Actinology: actinology is the branch that studies light and radiation from the stars, as well as their chemical and biological effects on different living beings.
  • Astrophysics : it is the branch that is responsible for studying the physics of celestial bodies, the formation of the stars and the evolution of the universe through laws and formulas.
  • Cosmogony : it is the branch that studies the formation of the stars, mainly those that are part of the solar system.

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